ERROR: Your browser does not support scripts.

ANNOUNCER: The following is a
class on the Bhagavad-gītā As It
Is, 1st chapter, text number 21
and 22, given by His Divine Grace
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupāda, recorded on July 18,
1973 in London, England.


Translation: “Arjuna said: O
infallible one, please draw my
chariot between the two armies
so that I may see who is present
here, who is desirous of fighting,
and with whom I must contend in
this great battle attempt.”

PRABHUPĀDA: Senayor ubhayor
madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me

Before this, Kṛṣṇa was addressed
as Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa we have
explained. Now Kṛṣṇa is
addressed here Acyuta. Cyuta
means fallen, and acyuta means
not fallen. Just like we are fallen.
We are fallen conditioned souls.
In this material world we have
come with an enjoying spirit.
Therefore we are fallen. If one
keeps his position rightly, he
does not fall. Otherwise he is
degraded. That is fallen
condition. So all the living entities
within this material world,
beginning from Brahmā down to
the small insignificant ant, they
are all fallen, fallen conditioned
souls. Why they are fallen?

kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga vañcha
kare pāśate māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā

Fallen means when the living
entities are under the clutches of
this material energy. That is
called fallen. Just like a man,
when he is under police custody,
it is to be understood that he is a
criminal, he is fallen. He has fallen
down from good citizenship.
Similarly, we are all parts and
parcels of Kṛṣṇa. Mamaivāṁśo
jīva-bhuta. So as part and parcel,
our position is to live with Kṛṣṇa.
Just like this is my finger, part
and parcel of my body. The
finger must remain attached with
this body. When this finger is cut
off and fallen, although it is
finger, it is no longer as
important as it was formerly
when it was attached with this
body. So anyone who is not
attached with the service of the
Supreme Lord, he is fallen. This is
the conclusion.

But Kṛṣṇa is not fallen. If Kṛṣṇa…
Because He comes to reclaim us.

yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir
bhavati bhārata abhyutthānam
adharmasya tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy
aham [Bg. 4.7]

Kṛṣṇa says that “I appear when
there is discrepancies in the, I
mean to say, occupational duties
of the living entities.” Dharmasya
glānir bhavati. We don’t translate
dharma as “religion.” Religion in
the English dictionary, it is “a kind
of faith.” Faith can be changed.
But dharma is a word which
cannot be changed. If it is
changed, it is to be understood
artificial. Just like the water.
Water is liquid, everyone knows.
But sometimes water becomes
hard, very hard, ice. So that is not
the natural position of water.
Artificially, on account of
excessive cold or by artificial
means the water becomes solid.
But the real position of water is

So when we are detached from
the service of the Lord, this is also
unnatural, unnatural. Natural
position is that we must be
engaged in the service of the
Lord. That is our natural position.
Therefore the Vaiṣṇava kavi says
that kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga
vañcha kare. When a living entity
forgets Kṛṣṇa, forgets Kṛṣṇa’s
position… Kṛṣṇa’s position…
Kṛṣṇa says, bhoktāraṁ yajña-
tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram:
[Bg. 5.29] “I am the proprietor, I
am the enjoyer.” This is the
Kṛṣṇa’s position. He never falls
down that position. Kṛṣṇa is
enjoyer. He keeps always that
position. He never falls down. He
never comes to the position of
being enjoyed. That is not
possible. If you want to bring
Kṛṣṇa on the position of being
enjoyed, then you are defeated.
Being enjoyed means keeping
Kṛṣṇa in front, I want to get some
profit of sense gratification. That
is our unnatural position. Kṛṣṇa
will never agree. Kṛṣṇa will never
agree. Kṛṣṇa cannot be enjoyed.
He is always enjoyer. He is always
the proprietor. So kṛṣṇa bhuliya
jīva means when we forget this
position of Kṛṣṇa, that He is the
Supreme Enjoyer, He is the
supreme proprietor… This is
called forgetfulness. As soon as I
think that “I am enjoyer, I am
proprietor,” this is my fallen
stage. Kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga
vañcha kare. Then jāpaṭiyā dhare,
māyā, immediately māyā

Therefore a conditioned soul,
fallen conditioned soul, is
struggling for existence. He is
trying to be enjoyer, he is trying
to be proprietor. That is his
artificial way of life. Just like if a
woman wants to become a man,
that is her artificial position. She
may dress herself as a man, just
like in the western countries
sometimes we see woman is
artificially dressing like man, with
hat, coat, man, riding on horse.
That is artificial. So similarly, our
position here in this material
world is artificial. We are trying to
imitate a man.

Actually the living entities are
described in the Bhagavad-gītā,
prakṛti. Prakṛti means woman.
And puruṣa means man. So the
living entities are never described
as puruṣa. Puruṣa is Kṛṣṇa. Puruṣa
śāśvata. When Arjuna said, paraṁ
brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ
paramaṁ bhavān, puruṣaṁ
śāśvatam adyam… [Bg. 10.12].
Puruṣaṁ śāśvatam. Kṛṣṇa is
always puruṣa. God cannot be
female. God is always male,
puruṣa. And we are prakṛti. That
is described in the Bhagavad-
gītā. Apareyam itas tu viddhi me
prakṛtim parā.

After describing the material
energy, bhūmir āpo analo vāyuḥ,
earth, water, air, fire, this
material…. This is also female,
prakṛti. Female means…. In India
we have got little experience. The
female is always controlled.
Female is never given the
position of controller. Nowadays
it is going on. Just like Indira
Gandhi, she has given the
position of controller. This is
artificial. In the history of India,
greater India, Mahābhārata, you
will never find that a woman has
been given a position of
controller. No. It is not possible.

We have to take things from the
śāstra. In the Bhagavad-gītā also
woman’s position has been
equated with śūdra. Striyaḥ
śūdrās tathā vaiśyas te ’pi yānti
parāṁ gatim. So position must
be ascertained. But this position
is artificial. Here either woman or
man, they are in artificial
position. Because a woman may
be in women’s dress, but her
mind is like man. She also wants
to enjoy. And the others, the so-
called man…. The so-called man
is also not man; he is woman.
Prakṛti. Apareyam itas tu viddhi
me prakṛtiṁ parā. Prakṛti. As the
earth, water, air, fire, sky, they are
also controlled, the supreme
controller is Kṛṣṇa, similarly, the
so-called man or woman in this
material world, they are also
controlled. Nobody can say that
“I am not controlled.” Who is
here? You must be controlled.

Therefore we see two prakṛtis:
para prakṛti and apara prakṛti.
But all of them are controlled;
none of them are the controller.
And that is the difference
between puruṣa and prakṛti.
Puruṣa means controller. And
prakṛti means controlled. Puruṣa
means predominator, and prakṛti
means predominated. This is the
difference. So Kṛṣṇa does not fall
from his position of
predominator. Therefore He is
addressed as Acyuta, Acyuta.
Senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ
sthāpaya me acyuta. Another
meaning of Acyuta… Kṛṣṇa is the
Supreme Personality of Godhead,
and Arjuna knows that “I am not
controller; I am controlled.” He is
devotee, he knows his position.
Therefore he is now trying to
control Kṛṣṇa. He is ordering
Kṛṣṇa. Senayor ubhayor madhye
rathaṁ sthāpaya: “My dear
Kṛṣṇa,” he is not addressing as
Kṛṣṇa—Acyuta, “now you place
my chariot between the two
parties.” This is ordering. That
means Arjuna becoming
controller. And Kṛṣṇa becoming
controlled. Just the opposite.
Therefore Arjuna knows his
subordinate position and he is
ordering to Kṛṣṇa. So indirectly
he is begging to be excused: “My
dear Kṛṣṇa, I cannot order You.
Order must come from You. But
because You promised to carry
out my order, You wanted to
become my chariot driver,
therefore I am ordering.
Therefore I am ordering. I am not
in position of ordering to You
and You promised to carry out
my order, and I think You are
fixed up in Your that promise.
Therefore I am asking you,
Acyuta. You don’t fall from Your
promise.” This is the… senayor
ubhayor madhye rathaṁ
sthāpaya me acyuta. What is the
number of verse?


PRABHUPĀDA: Forty-eight? The
next point is that Arjuna wanted
to see with whom he had to fight.
He had no desire to fight. That
will be explained. He was fighting
unwillingly. Unwillingly. Because
he is a Vaiṣṇava, unnecessarily he
does not want to kill, although he
is kṣatriya. It is his duty.
Whenever there is discrepancy,
killing, as representative of
Kṛṣṇa… Kṛṣṇa has got two
business. Paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ
vināśāya ca duṣkṛtam [Bg. 4.8] He
has got two businesses. One
business is to give protection to
the devotees, sādhu, sādhu.
Sādhu means devotee. Sādhu
does not mean simply by
changing dress, saffron color,
and smoking beedies. That is not
sādhu. Sādhu means devotee.

One who is devotee… That is
explained in many śāstras.
Sadhavaḥ sādhu-bhusanam.

titikṣavaḥ kāruṇikāḥ suhṛdaḥ
sarva-bhūtānām ajāta-śatravaḥ
śāntāḥ sādhavaḥ sādhu-

This is the qualification of sādhu.
Sādhu is titikṣava, tolerates all
kinds of miserable conditions. He
is sādhu. Because this is a place
of miserable condition. A sādhu
learns how to tolerate. Sādhu is
never disturbed. Yasmin sthito
guruṇāpi duḥkhena na vicālyate.
A sādhu, who has got the shelter
of Kṛṣṇa, if he is placed in the
severest type of dangerous
condition, he is never disturbed.
Just like Prahlāda Mahārāja, his
father was putting him in so
many dangerous conditions, even
he was supplying with poison. He
knew that “My father has given
me poison to drink. All right, let
me drink. If Kṛṣṇa likes, He will
save me. I am now put into such
dangerous position. I have to
drink. Father is giving poison.
Who can check?” And such a big
powerful Hiraṇyakaśipu. The
mother cried, requested… He
forced the mother, Prahlāda’s
mother, “Give your son this
poison.” So she begged so much,
but he was a rascal demon. “No,
you must give.” So the mother
knew, the son knew that the
rascal father is giving this poison.
What can he do, a small child?
“All right, let me drink.” Guruṇāpi
duḥkhena na vicālyate. He is not
agitating. “All right, if Kṛṣṇa likes,
I will live.” This is the position of
sādhu. He is not disturbed.
Titikṣavaḥ. In all circumstances,
he is tolerant. That is sādhu.
Sādhu does not become
disturbed. Titikṣavaḥ. At the same
time, kāruṇikāḥ. He is himself
disturbed, but he is merciful to

Just like Jesus Christ. He is being
crucified, and still he is merciful:
“God, these people do not know
what they are doing. Please
excuse them.” This is sādhu. He is
personally being disturbed by
the demons, but still, he is
merciful to the general people.
They are suffering for want of
Kṛṣṇa consciousness. So even up
to the point of death, he is trying
to preach Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
“Let the people be benefited. Eh,
what is this material body? Even
if I am killed, I am not killed. This
body is killed, that’s all.” This is
sādhu. Titikṣavaḥ kāruṇikāḥ. In
one side he is tolerant, and other
side, merciful.

In the material world, when one
man is disturbed, he cannot do
any beneficial work to any others.
He is disturbed. “No, I am very
much disturbed. Don’t talk with
me.” No. But sādhu still goes on
benefiting the people in general.
Titikṣavaḥ kāruṇikāḥ. And what
kind of benefit? The so-called
rascals humanitarian work? No.
Suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām. He is
beneficial to all kinds of living

Not this rascaldom, daridra-
nārāyaṇa. Just like one rascal has
manufactured this daridra-
nārāyaṇa. The poor man has
become Nārāyaṇa, and the goat
Nārāyaṇa is killed for their
feeding. Not this kind of sādhu.
Suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām. A
sādhu will not allow any kind of
killing. See in the Christian
religion, it is first injunction is
“Thou shalt not kill.” If you want
to become religious… They are
simply killing, and still, they are
claiming “Christian.” What kind of
Christian? Simply their business is
killing. So it is very difficult to
find out a Christian, although
they are claiming, I am
“Christian.” It is very difficult.
Because their business is killing.
And Lord Jesus Christ ordered,
first order is, “Thou shalt not kill.
Thou shalt not covet.” Who is

So sādhu is suhṛdaṁ sarva-
bhūtānām. Why he should allow
animal killing? They are also
living entities, but for their
benefit, the so-called sādhu says,
“The animal has no soul.” What is
this nonsense? Animal has no
soul? Why? What is the
difference between animal and
man? What are the symptoms of
possessing the soul? They are all
equal. The man also eats, the
animal also eats. The man also
sleeps, the animal also sleeps, the
man also have sex life, the
animals also have sex life. The
man also defends, the animals
also defends. So where is the
deficiency that you say that the
animal has no soul?

Imperfect knowledge. Or making
adjustment for their own benefit.
Now they are making correction:
“Thou shalt not kill,” “Thou shalt
not murder.” That means it will
come to human being. But the
actual commandment is “Thou
shalt not kill.” But these Christian
people, they are making some
amendment, “Thou shalt not
murder.” Because murder will
apply to the killing of human
beings. But Lord Jesus Christ
never said like that. “Thou shalt
not kill.” It is applicable both for
human being and for animal or
even for trees. Unnecessarily you
cannot kill. That is sādhu.
Suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām. “Don’t
kill my brother, but you can kill
my neighbors.” Not like that. He
is not sādhu. Sādhu is kind to all
living entities.

Kṛṣṇa consciousness means to
become kind to everyone.
Therefore we say, “No meat-
eating.” Meat-eating means
killing the animals. Killing the
animals. Why you shall kill
animals? You have to take Kṛṣṇa
prasādam. Patraṁ puṣpaṁ
phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā
prayacchati, tad aham aṣnāmi.
Kṛṣṇa says… Kṛṣṇa is God. He can
eat everything, everything. Kṛṣṇa
ate fire, you know. There was
forest fire in Vṛndāvana. All the
cowherds boys they became very
much frightened, “Kṛṣṇa.” “Yes,
I’m ready.” He ate up all the fire.
So for Kṛṣṇa He could eat
anything He likes. He is God. But
still, He recommends, patraṁ
puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me
bhaktyā prayacchati. Why?
Because we have to take Kṛṣṇa’s
prasādam, so therefore He is
recommending, “These things
you can give Me.” Patraṁ
puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ. So that is
our food. We are devotees of
Kṛṣṇa. We are meant for eating
the remnants of foodstuff offered
to Kṛṣṇa.

That is our… Jihvā, tāra madhye…
If you want to conquer the
tongue, then you fix up your
mind that you shall not take
anything which is not offered to
Kṛṣṇa. Then your tongue will be
controlled. Tāra madhye jihvā ati
lobhamaya sudurmati. Tongue is
the bitterest enemy of the living
being. The tongue is dragging.
Jihvā. “Kindly give me this
immediately. Kindly give me this
wine immediately. Kindly give me
this tea immediately. Kindly give
me this cigarette immediately.
Kindly give me this meat.” Why?
Control. Kṛṣṇa says, patraṁ
puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ. So we
have to take prasādam, eat Kṛṣṇa
prasādam. Then naturally the
other things will be negativated.
This is the position. Suhṛdaṁ

So if all human beings become
vegetarian, not vegetarian, but
eater of the Kṛṣṇa’s prasādam, all
these liquor house and
slaughterhouse and brothels will
be closed. This is Kṛṣṇa
consciousness movement. We
want to close these nonsense
places of sinful life: brothels,
illegitimate sense gratification,
sex relationship, prostitution. If
we are embarrassed with this
sinful life, there is no possibility
of becoming again acyuta. We
remain cyuta, fallen. We remain

It is not so easy thing that “I do
everything, whatever I like.” Some
rascals preach that “Oh, religion
has nothing to do with your
eating. You can eat anything you
like, and still you become a
religious man.” This is all
nonsense. Nobody can become
religious man if he is attracted by
sinful activities. It is not possible.
You must stop sinful activities.
That is first condition. Otherwise
you cannot understand what
there… People… Perhaps, in this
Kṛṣṇa conscious, except this
Kṛṣṇa conscious movement, all
rascals, they do not know what is
God. They have no clear
conception of God. Because they
are sinful. We can give the name,
address and everything of God,
clear conception, not vague idea,
“God may be like this, God may
be like that.” Why maybe? He is

veṇuṁ kvaṇantam aravinda-
dalāyatākṣaṁ barhāvataṁsam
śobhaṁ govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ
tam ahaṁ bhajāmi [Bs. 5.30]

Clear conception. The śāstra,
Brahma-saṁhitā, clear
description of God, veṇuṁ
kvaṇantam. He is playing on
flute. It is not that the
Muralīdhara, Śyāmasundara,
Kṛṣṇa, has been imagined by
some poet. No, it is described in
the śāstra, the form of the Lord.
He is busy in playing flute, veṇuṁ
kvaṇantam. Aravinda
dalāyatākṣaṁ [Bs. 5.30], His eyes
are just like petals of the lotus
flower. Veṇuṁ kvaṇantam
aravinda, barhāvataṁsa, there is
a peacock feather on His head.
śobhaṁ [Bs. 5.30], and He is so
beautiful that His beauty can cut
down thousands of Cupids.
Cupid is supposed to be the
most beautiful in this material
world. Kandarpa-koti-kamanīya-
viśeṣa-śobhaṁ govindam ādi-
puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi [Bs.
5.30] Clear conception.

This is the description of God in
the śāstra. And when God came,
Kṛṣṇa came on this planet, the
same description. He is playing
on flute, He has got the feather,
peacock feather. So this painting
of Kṛṣṇa is not an artist’s
imagination. It is exactly the
form. So here is the form of the
Lord. Here is the name of the
Lord. Here is the activities of the
Lord. This is clear conception. A
sādhu knows what is God. Or
sādhu cannot know. They are
thinking, “God must be like this,
God may be like this, He must be
a very old man,” because adi-
puruṣa. He is the first living… In
this way… So you cannot create
God by imagination. That is not
possible. God is God, always. You
have to know simply what is God.
He is never cyuta.

God never becomes fallen down
from His original position. The
original position is, God describes
Himself, mattaḥ parataraṁ
nānyat: “There is no more
superior authority than Me.” That
is God. One, if he is controlled,
how he can be God? The
supreme controller is God, the
supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa.
Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ [Bs. 5.1].
Īśvaraḥ means controller, and
paramaḥ means supreme. And
who is that? Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says
also, mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat
kiñcid asti dhanañjaya [Bg. 7.7].
So He is acyuta. He keeps His
position. He never falls down. We
are all fallen souls. Because our
position, our Acyuta position is to
serve Kṛṣṇa. Because we are part
and parcel of Kṛṣṇa.

The same example: Just like this
finger is part and parcel of my
body. Its business is to serve the
body. That is the business. There
is no other business. A finger can
pick up a rasagullā and keep it
here. The finger cannot eat.
Similarly, we cannot eat directly.
That is our diseased condition.
We have to offer Kṛṣṇa. When
Kṛṣṇa eats, if we eat that, then we
become energized. Just like you
rasagullā put into the mouth.
When it goes to the stomach, the
finger immediately becomes
reddish. The finger enjoys. Not
only the finger, the eyes enjoy,
the legs enjoy, because the
energy is distributed. Directly we
cannot be energized by eating.
We must eat Kṛṣṇa’s prasādam.
This is principle. Jīvera svarūpa
haya nitya kṛṣṇa dāsa [Cc.
Madhya 20.108-109].

So if we serve Kṛṣṇa, that is our
Acyuta position. If we deny to
serve Kṛṣṇa, that is vicyuta, fallen
condition. Acyuta and vicyuta. So
to become Kṛṣṇa conscious
means acyuta-gotra. Acyuta-
gotra. Gotra, perhaps you do not
know. Gotra is the family
tradition. According to Vedic
civilization, everybody has got
gotra. Gotra means of the same
family, of ṛṣis, gotra, from the ṛṣis.
So we have to become acyuta-
gotra, again belonging to the
family of Kṛṣṇa. Now we are
fallen. Therefore we have
forgotten that we belong to the
family of Kṛṣṇa. When we revive
our consciousness, Kṛṣṇa
consciousness, that “I belong to
the Kṛṣṇa’s family…” Kṛṣṇa is not
alone, eko bahu śyāma. He wants
to enjoy.

So we are family members of
Kṛṣṇa, not void. That is another
rascaldom. Why Kṛṣṇa should be
alone? He is so powerful, He is so
opulent, have you got any
experience that a powerful
person, opulent person is alone?
Where is that example? Any rich
man, any powerful man, any king,
any lord, oh, he has got so many
associates. So how Kṛṣṇa can be
alone? Kṛṣṇa is never alone.
Therefore you will find always
Kṛṣṇa with the gopīs, Kṛṣṇa with
the cowherds boys, Kṛṣṇa with
Arjuna. Kṛṣṇa is never alone. So
these are the conditions of
becoming acyuta. So Arjuna
knows all these things because
he is a devotee. Therefore
particularly he is addressing
Kṛṣṇa, senayor ubhayor madhye
rathaṁ sthāpaya me acyuta.
That’s all right. Thank you very