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ANNOUNCER: What follows is a
class on the Bhagavad-gītā As It
Is, 2nd chapter, text number 51
to 54, given by His Divine Grace
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupāda, recorded in the
summer of 1966 in New York.


karma-jaṁ buddhi-yuktā hi
phalaṁ tyaktvā manīṣiṇaḥ janma-
bandha-vinirmuktāḥ padaṁ
gacchanty anāmayam

Now, last, in our last meeting, we
were discussing this verse, that
karma-jam, every action, every
activities that we are engaged in,
it has got a reaction. Any activity,
it has got reaction. And that
reaction is another bondage for
me. Now I am engaged in one
action, and I am producing
another reaction. Now, at the
present moment, I am bounded
by one kind of activities, and I
am producing another kind of
activities. Just like in the
cinematographic spool, there are
hundreds and thousands of
pictures. One picture passed,
another picture present, and
another picture is ahead. The
whole picture, when put into the
machine, it represents some
activity. So we are bound up by
nature’s law in such a way… Why
nature’s law? Even in your state
laws, we are bound up by so
many laws.

So this is our position. This is
called conditioned stage of life.
There is no freedom. The so-
called freedom… We declare that
“I belong to the free nation. I am
free.” These are all simply mental
speculation. There is no freedom.
So long I am bound up by the
conditions of nature, there is no
freedom. Now, here is a chance…
Lord Kṛṣṇa says that karma-jaṁ
buddhi-yuktā. Now, here is an
opportunity for you. In human
form of your life, you have got
sufficient intelligence, and the
Lord Himself is before you to
enlighten your intelligence more
and more. Here is the book. This
book, what is spoken by Lord
Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa is not different.
Because Kṛṣṇa, or the Lord, is on
the absolute plane. Don’t think
that Kṛṣṇa is absent. Kṛṣṇa is
present here. There is a verse in
Bhāgavata, tatra tiṣṭhāmi nārada
yatra gāyanti mad-bhaktāḥ, that,
“I… My dear Nārada,…” Nārada is
a great devotee. Perhaps you,
who are accustomed with Vedic
literatures, you have heard the
name of Nārada. So Nārada is a
great devotee, and the Lord
assures him that, “Don’t think
that I am living in the kingdom of
God, or I am living in the heart of
a great mystic, or somewhere
else, somewhere else… People
may think. But I am living in that
place where My sincere devotees
assemble and discuss about

So here we should always
understand that if we sincerely
and seriously take up the
message of the Bhagavad-gītā as
it is, without any, I mean to say,
adulteration… Sometimes it is
adulterated by… Because
Bhagavad-gītā is a very
authoritative book, and it is
popular all over the world,
sometimes people take
advantage of this book and
present their own theory in an
adulterated way. Not to speak of
others… I may tell you frankly
that even in our country, the
greatest, I mean to, saintly
politician, Mahatma Gandhi, he
propounded a philosophy of
nonviolence. Perhaps you know,
every one of you, that he
propounded nonviolence, and he
wanted to prove nonviolence
from Bhagavad-gītā. He has got
an annotation of Bhagavad-gītā,
an d he has tried to prove that
Bhagavad-gītā, there is proof,
nonviolence. But actually,
Bhagavad-gītā is being spoken in
the battlefield, where everyone is
prepared to start violence. Simply
for a moment, when Arjuna was
disturbed in his mind, that “How
can I fight with my relatives and
friends and sons and grandsons
and so, so many things?” Bodily
relations. And the Bhagavad-gītā
was spoken. So that is a practical
thing that Bhagavad-gītā was
practically spoken to induce
Arjuna to adopt violence. Now,
Mahatma Gandhi, his philosophy
was nonviolence. How could he
prove that Bhagavad-gītā gives
evidence of nonviolence? No.
Therefore, anyone, Mahatma
Gandhi or anyone, who has got
his own ulterior motive, to prove
it from the topics of Bhagavad-
gītā, he must adulterate it. But
that is not the process of reading
Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā,
how to read Bhagavad-gītā, that
is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā.
When we come to the Fourth
Chapter, we’ll know. So anyway,
apart from the process of… But
rest assured, we are speaking
here of the Bhagavad-gītā as it is.
We are not going to add, add in
it something for fulfilling our own
philosophy, our own points of

Now here Lord Kṛṣṇa says that if
you want to get rid of this
entanglement of… What is that
entanglement? Now, janma-
bandha, janma-bandha. Oh, it is
a great entanglement. People do
not take it very seriously. Birth.
Birth means, as soon as birth…
Only the one word has been used
here, janma. Janma means birth.
Birth means other things. Birth
means death. Birth means old
age. Birth means disease.
Whenever there is birth, the
other things are corollaries.
They’ll follow. Your birth means…
A son is born. Oh, you are very
glad, “I have got a son.” But if
you study philosophically, no,
birth is not. He is not born. Death
is born. Because the growing of
the child means he is dying. It is
dying. The dying process. The
very day, the very moment the
child is born, the dying process
begins. So we do not know that it
is not birth. It is death. This is
called māyā. This is called
illusion, that death is born and
we are jolly that there is birth of
a child. This is called māyā. So
everything, from the beginning of
our birth, we are illusioned,
illusioned. And that illusion is so
strong that it is very, very difficult
to get out of it. Whole thing is
illusion. The birth is illusion. This
body is an illusion. And the bodily
relationships, the country is
illusion. The father is illusion. The
mother is an illusion. The wife is
an illusion. The childrens are
illusion. Everything illusion.
Everything illusion. And we are
compact in that illusion. We are
thinking that we are very much
learned and very much advanced
and so many things we are
imagining. But as soon as death
comes, the actual fact, the
beginning of death, then we
forget everything. We can forget
our country. We forget our
relatives. We forget our wife,
children, father, mother—
everything gone. You see? If it is
a fact that I am soul, eternal,
then it is a fact also that in my
previous life I had my country. I
had my children. I had my home.
I had my father. I had my
everything. But can you
remember any of these things,
what you were in your previous
life? Either human, human-born
life or either animal life, you
cannot… Death means forgetful.
We have forgotten everything.
Actually, there is no death for the
soul. Just like you are… At night,
you go to sleep. So that is a sort
of death. And again you get up in
the morning. So death is
something like that. Death is
sleeping for seven months. That’s
all. Without any consciousness.
For three, three months without
any consciousness. Or, say,
seven months. Death means
forgetfulness. Just like at sleep,
we forget everything, what I am,
where I am sleeping, who I am,
what is my identity, identification,
everything forgotten. Then again,
as soon as I rise up in the
morning, I remember, “Oh, I am
such and such officer. I am such
and such father, such and such
husband, and I have got to do
such and such things.”
Everything remembered. But
during your sleep, you forget
everything. Similarly, death
means from the time of your
leaving this body and entering
into the womb of another
mother, and so long another
body is not developed, you
remain unconscious. And as soon
as another body’s developed
within the womb of the mother
and the time is up to come out,
then again you remember.

So practically there is no death.
Death means changing the body.
We have already discussed this
point. Now… But that janma, that
birth, oh, it is stated here that it
is a bondage. Janma-bandha.
Bandha means bondage.
Practically there is similarity in
English. It is called bandha. And
in English, bond. There is
similarity of sound. Janma-
bandha. So this janma, so long,
so long your mind will be
absorbed in the activities of this
material world, you are sure to
take birth again. So that
activities, by intelligence, have to
be purified in such a way that it
will not affect you. It will not
affect you. That is the tactics.
This tactic… So we should be
very serious. We should be very
serious that many, many lives,
many, many lives we have
passed, but there was no
opportunity to get out of this
tribulation of birth, death, old age
and diseases. Now here is a
chance. Here is a chance in the
human form of life. So every
intelligent man should take
advantage of it, and you can get
assistance from these authorized
books of Bhagavad-gītā and
Śrīmad-Bhāgavata. And also
expert advice, knowledge. So we
should not miss this opportunity.
And then the question is,
“Suppose my, after this, after
quitting this body, the present
body, I don’t get janma. Then
what is happening to me?” It is
al… That is also stated here.
Janma-vi…, janma-bandha-
vinirmuktāḥ padaṁ gacchanty
anāmayam. Anāmayam.
Āmayam. Āmayam means
contamination. Āmayam,
contamination. So this
contaminated life, as soon as we
give up this contaminated life,
then our promotion is in the
uncontaminated atmosphere,
anāmayam. Anāmayam.
Anāmayam means Vaikuṇṭha.
Vaikuṇṭha means where there is
no anxiety. I think about this
anxiety we explained to you in
our last meeting.

So we are, we are getting
promotion. We are getting
promotion to a life where there is
no birth, no death and no
disease, no old age. And that
means we come to our normal
life. Normally, we want. Nobody
wants disease. Nobody wants
death. Nobody wants old age.
Nobody wants to suffer the suf…,
I mean to say, the miseries of
birth. Oh. There are great
miseries when you are in the
womb of the mother, all tightly
packed up and in a bag,
suffocated bag. We do not
(know) how do we live even. And
if we put again into that position,
it will be very difficult. You
cannot live for a few seconds.
But by the arrangement of
nature, or God, we live within the
womb of our mother for ten
months in that position. But we
have forgotten. But just imagine
in how much trouble I was. That
is, these things are to be
thought. That is intelligent
thought. Now, here is a chance
that you can get rid of these, all
these miseries—the miseries of
birth, the miseries of death, the
miseries of old age and miseries
of, I mean to say, disease.

Now, this… Now we are speaking
the synopsis; the Bhagavad-gītā,
this Second Chapter is the
synopsis, what will be elaborately
explained. Not very elaborately,
but still more clearly, it will be
explained in later chapters. Now
Bhagavad-gītā is the preliminary
study of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Just like introductory,
introductory study. Now, how we
can practically get into such
activities which will not bound
me, I mean to say, in a reaction?
That is explained in the Śrīmad-
Bhāgavatam, that,

sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato
bhaktir adhokṣaje ahaituky
apratihatā yayātmā suprasīdati
[SB 1.2.6]

Ātmā suprasīdati. Ātmā means
self. Our present position is that
we are not happy. We are always
full of anxieties. That is our
present position. Now, here just
the opposite word is used that
yayā ātmā suprasīdati. If you
want to actually, if you want
actually to make yourself jolly,
full of happiness, then you should
search out your occupation in
such a way that it will lead you to
the devotional service of the
Supreme Lord. Sa vai puṁsāṁ
paro dharmaḥ. Para means the
highest, or the transcendental.
We are engaged in some, in
some sort of activities. Nobody is
free from activities. Even a ant,
an ant, it is also engaged in
activity. And the elephant. Ant is
the most, I mean to…, according
to our vision, the ant is very small
and the elephant is very big. But
everyone, beginning from the ant
up to the elephant, so far our
experience is concerned… There
are other big animals also. We
have not seen. But we can see
from the description of the
scriptures that there are fishes in
the ocean which is called
timiṅgila. So timiṅgila… You,
perhaps you know that fish which
is called in Sanskrit timi matsya,
or whale fish, very big,
sometimes hundred feet long. So
there are other fishes which is a
timiṅgila. That fish swallows up
this fish, this hundred-feet-long.
Now just imagine what must be
the length of that fish’s body.
You see?

So in God’s creation there are so
many wonderful things. We have
not seen all. But everyone is
engaged in some sort of
occupation for livelihood. Nobody
is silent. Nobody is silent.
According to his nature, modes of
nature, and position, everyone is
busy. Now the Bhāgavata says
that sa vai puṁsāṁ paro
dharmaḥ. Everyone busy, but
when one is busy in such a work
that leads to devotional service of
the Lord, that busyness, that
occupation, is the supermost.
That occupation is the
supermost. Sa vai puṁsaṁ paro
dharmaḥ. Para means
supermost. And that sort of
occupation should be without any
cause. Everything is done,
everything is done, so far our
duties are concerned—there is a
cause. I do this because I want
this. So there is a cause and
effect. But this sort of busyness,
this sort of occupation, which
leads you to the devotional
service of the Lord, it has no
cause. Ahaituki. It has no cause.
Why it has no cause? Just like a
lover, or, say, lover, beloved, set
aside. Just like mother. A mother
loves the, her child. There is no
cause. She does not know “Why I
am loving.” Automatically.
Automatically, she loves.
Similarly, we have got our
relationship with the supreme
consciousness. We are
consciousness. That is accepted.
Now, there is supreme
consciousness also. Just let us
have some estimation what is
that supreme consciousness.
Now, supreme consciousness…
Consciousness is described in the
Bhagavad-gītā: yena sarvam
idaṁ tatam. The consciousness is
distributed throughout your
whole body. That we can make
an experiment. But this
consciousness is not, I mean
to…, spread over all the cosmic
manifestation. That is also a fact.
My consciousness is spread over
my body. Your consciousness is
spread over your body. I do not
know what you are thinking now,
and you do not know what I am
thinking. Therefore my
consciousness, individual; your
consciousness, individual. But
there is the Supersoul who knows
what you are thinking and what I
am thinking, what he is thinking,
everyone thinking. That is

So superconsciousness and
individual consciousness. So our
relationship, the
superconsciousness and
individual consciousness, is
eternal, eternal. They cannot be,
I mean to say, separated.
Therefore my position is… Just
like there is superior one and the
inferior one. Inferior one is
subordinate to the superior one,
and inferior one is to act
according to the superior one.
Just like it is taught here that
Kṛṣṇa is the superconsciousness;
He’s trying to convince Arjuna
that “You act according to My
direction. Because you are
individual consciousness,
subordinate to Me, and I am
Superconsciousness.” And in the
last phase of Bhagavad-gītā,
you’ll see that He summarized,
Lord Kṛṣṇa summarized, sarva-
dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ
śaraṇaṁ vraja: [Bg. 18.66] “You
just surrender unto Me.” This is
the sum and substance of
everything. So therefore the
conclusion is that the individual
consciousness should surrender
to the supreme consciousness
and act accordingly. That is the
position of standing on the
conscious plane. That is the
position of conscious plane. And
Bhagavad, Śrīmad-Bhāgavata
also says that sa vai puṁsāṁ
paro dharmaḥ, the activities, the
occupation, the business, that
which leads us to that
consciousness, that
consciousness, that “I am
subordinate to the supreme
consciousness,” and lets me act
according to the supreme
consciousness, without any
cause, ahaituki, without… “Why I
shall act?” There is no such
question. It is automatic,
automatic. Just like a little son,
and the mother… The little son is
automatically subordinate to the
mother. Whatever the mother
says, the child acts. The child is
completely dependent. Similarly,
as soon as we make our
consciousness completely
engaged in the service of the
supreme consciousness, that is
our liberated position. That is our
liberated position. And in that
liberated position, whatever we
do, there is no reaction. That is
transcendental position.

So what Śrī Kṛṣṇa says here?
That karma-jam, karma-jam, that
“Every, your any work which you
are performing, that is creating
some reaction for future
enjoyment or suffering. But if you
act intelligently, in collaboration
with the supreme consciousness,
then you’ll be free from this
bondage of birth, death, old age
and diseases and, in your next
life… This is a training period.
This life will be a training period,
and as soon as you are fully
trained up, then the next result
will be that after giving up this
body you come to My kingdom.”
Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti
mām eti kaunteya [Bg. 4.9]

So this is the whole process. So
that sort of business which will
lead us to the position when we
shall be dovetailed, we shall be
dovetailed with the supreme
consciousness… Just like this
morning I was giving an
example. Just like one motorcar
is passing on in sixty miles’
speed, and a cyclist also going
on. If the cyclist catches the
motorcar, he can also proceed
with the same speed, sixty miles’
speed, without even pedalling.
Similarly, if we can join our
consciousness with the supreme
consciousness, then our whole
life becomes successful. That is
the point. Now, how to join it?
The religion. The whole worldly
religious process is the same, I
mean to say, experimental or
formulas or rituals so that one
may become dovetailed with the
supreme consciousness. Every
religion. But if we become
attracted by the rituals only or
formulas, and quarrel on that
point that, “Oh, my Bible says like
this,” or I say, “No, my Vedas
says like this,” and the Muslim,
Musselman, says that “No, my
Koran says like this. Your is not
right,” then we become attached
to the rituals only. We forget, we
forget the right point. The right
point is… The whole process is
how to dovetail, how to dovetail
myself with the supreme
consciousness. Going to the
church, it is not a formality, but
real thing is to elevate myself
gradually, to dovetail myself to
the supreme consciousness of
God. That is the real formula. So
Kṛṣṇa says that karma-jaṁ
buddhi-yuktā hi. When we are
engaged in such a way, then we
get rid of this janma-bandha-
vinirmuktāḥ. And next śloka is
yadā te moha-kalilaṁ, gantāsi
nirvedaṁ śrotavyasya śrutasya
ca: “When you are elevated to
that platform, dovetailing yourself
with the Supreme consciousness,
then there is no more requisition
for understanding the scriptures
or the rituals or the religious
process. You have, you are
transcendental to that, all these
paraphernalia.” Yadā te moha-
kalilaṁ buddhir vyatitariṣyati:
“When your consciousness is
dovetailed in cooperation with
the supreme consciousness, then
you are transcendental to the
position of this illusory stage.”
Yadā te moha-kalilaṁ buddhir
vyatitariṣyati, tadā gantāsi
nirvedam: “At that time you
become callous to all these rituals
because your position and your
activities are fixed up.”
Śrotavyasya śrutasya ca:
“Whatever you have heard and
whatever you have to hear in the
future, all finishes.”

Therefore the whole thing
depends how to adjust ourself to
that supreme consciousness. And
if we cannot… The next verse in
the Śrīmad-Bhāgavata says that,

dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ
viṣvaksena-kathāsu yaḥ
notpādayed yadi ratiṁ śrama eva
hi kevalam [SB 1.2.8]

Śrama eva hi kevalam. If by
performing all religious rituals
very nicely and very perfectly, if
we fail to dovetail ourself with
the supreme consciousness, then
all our labor for performing these
rituals and religious
performances, they become only
labor of love. It has not produced
anything substantial, anything
substantial. Nanu niṣkarmāṇi
karmāṇi kurvata me.(?) This is
the question of Arjuna, that
“When I shall be self-realized by
doing work without any fruitive
result, so what will be the
position of my self-realization?”
That, in that, in answer to that
question, that “When you shall
be callous to all religious rituals
and scriptural injunction and
simply you shall be engaged in
the, in the dovetailing business of
with the superconsciousness,
then you are in transcendental
position of all religious rituals and
all conception of religious
ceremonies and everything.”
That’s it. But in the beginning
you require all these things.
Therefore Bhāgavata says that
that sort of religion which
elevates you to that
consciousness, that is the
supreme type of religion.

śruti-vipratipannā te yadā
sthāsyati niścalā samādhāv acalā
buddhis tadā yogam avāpsyasi

This is the position of yoga.
Yoga, samādhi. Samādhi means
to be always in the, situated in
the superconsciousness, situated
in the business of dovetailing
with the superconsciousness.
That is called samādhi.
Bhagavad-gītā. Śruti-vipratipannā
te yadā sthāsyati niścalā. You are
not deviated even by hearing so
many other things. If you are not
deviated, then that position is
called samādhi, and that position
is the highest position of your

Now, Kṛṣṇa is being questioned
by Arjuna that “What are the
symptoms of such person who is
already in that position of
dovetailing the individual
consciousness with the
superconsciousness? What are
the symptoms?”

arjuna uvāca sthita-prajñasya kā
bhāṣā samādhi-sthasya keśava
sthita-dhīḥ kiṁ prabhāṣeta kim
āsīta vrajeta kim

Now Arjuna says, “My dear
Kṛṣṇa, will You kindly explain
what are the language? How a
person who is already in
transcendental position, how
does he speak? How does he act?
And how does he live? How does
he move?” All these things.
Because in our present life, we
have to act. Activity is not
stopped. Simply the activities are
to be dovetailed in a certain way
that we can join ourself with the
superconsciousness. Now, when
such thing is performed, when
actually one is dovetailed with
the superconsciousness, what are
the symptoms of his life, this is
being questioned by Arjuna. And
Lord Kṛṣṇa, śrī bhagavān uvāca.
You will find always in Bhagavad-
gītā that although Kṛṣṇa is
speaking the words, “Bhagavān”
is used. Because Kṛṣṇa is,
Kṛṣṇa… The very word means the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Just like we have recited the

īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-
ānanda-vigrahaḥ anādir ādir
govindaḥ sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam
[Bs. 5.1]

So Kṛṣṇa and Bhagavān is
identical. So here you’ll see, in
the Bhagavad-gītā, instead of
mentioning that Kṛṣṇa said, when
Arjuna speaking, it is clearly said
that “Arjuna said,” but when
Kṛṣṇa is speaking, it is said śrī
bhagavān uvāca: “The
Personality of God is speaking.”

Now Śrī Kṛṣṇa answering the
symptoms of the self-realized
personality. So what is that? First
symptom is,

prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān
pārtha mano-gatān ātmany
evātmanā tuṣṭaḥ sthita-prajñas

The first principle, or the first
symptom of a self-realized soul is
that he does not make any plan
for his prosperity. Because we
are always busy in making plan,
“Now, after this, we shall do this.
After this, we shall do this.” But
one who is self-realized, he has
no plan. Because he has
dovetailed himself with the
supreme consciousness, so for
himself he has nothing to do. He
simply depends. He simply
depends on the supreme
consciousness. It is very elevated
stage. You see. But completely,
he surrenders himself and… But
we should not be, I mean,
imitating this. This is, of course,
spoken for the highest stage. But
we should… Without coming to
that highest stage, we should not
imitate. When Kṛṣṇa is asked, He
must give the proper answer; so
He’s giving answer that prajahāti
yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha mano-
gatān. Because our mind is the
factory of creating so many
plans, so many plans. But one
who has dovetailed himself, he
has nothing to do for planmaking
because everything is taken up
by the supreme consciousness.
He has simply to follow.
Therefore he has, for himself, he
has no plan. He has no plan. This
is the first symptom. But without
reaching that stage, we should
not pose ourself, that “I have
nothing to think. I have nothing
to speak of future, past or
anything.” No. Gradually, we shall
come to the stage when there
will be everything done
automatically. But in, in the
present moment, in the present
moment, we should give up
planmaking, but we shall, we
shall have to take up the plan of
the supreme consciousness.
Personally, we shall not make any
plans. But we have to receive the
plan from the supreme
consciousness. That will be our
position. Just like an apprentice.
He is working, he is working in
the apprenticeship. He should not
present his own plan. But he has
to take plans of work from his
superior. Then he will learn. And
when he’s accustomed, when
he’s elevated, then he’ll be able
to make independent plans.
Although not independent
always, but even it is higher
officer, everyone has to consult
the higher authorities. Similarly,
this means that I shall not
independently make any plan,
but I must accept the standard
plan which is coming directly
from the supreme consciousness
through a channel. Through a
channel. You have to seek that

So that channel is called… You’ll
find it in the Bhagavad-gītā, in
the Fourth Chapter, paramparā,
paramparā, disciplic succession.
Disciplic succession. The words,
the plan and the instruction
which is coming directly from
Kṛṣṇa, that thing we have to
accept. We shall not make any
our own plan. That is the way of
making progress. Now, this
disciplic succession, as we have
accepted, this disciplic succession
comes from Kṛṣṇa. Just like Kṛṣṇa
is instructing Arjuna. Kṛṣṇa is
instructing Arjuna, and we have
to understand how Arjuna has
understood Kṛṣṇa. And if we
follow the understanding of
Arjuna, then we are following the
paramparā system, or the
disciplic succession. That is the
process. Now, in the Tenth
Chapter, in the Tenth Chapter
you’ll find that how Kṛṣṇa is
understood by Arjuna. After
hearing not all, at least seventy-
five percent of the instruction of
Bhagavad-gītā, the estimation of
Arjuna is stated in the Tenth
Chapter. He says that… I think
that I may… (long pause, pages
rustling) Here. Arjuna, after
understanding Kṛṣṇa, after His
instruction, he said that,
automatically he said,

paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma
pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān
puruṣaṁ śāśvataṁ divyam ādi-
devam ajaṁ vibhum [Bg. 10.12]

”Kṛṣṇa, now I understand it that
you are Paraṁ Brahman.” Paraṁ
Brahman means the, the
Supreme, supreme spiritual
identity. Every one of us is
Brahman. You are Brahman. I am
Brahman. Every living entity is
Brahman. Because he’s not this
matter, he’s spirit soul. Whoever
is spirit soul, he is called
Brahman. But Kṛṣṇa is addressed
here, Paraṁ Brahma. Just like we
recited that śloka, the verse,
īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ [Bs.
5.1]. Īśvara, every one of us,
īśvara. The translation of īśvara
word is “god.” Now, god, god
means, īśvara means controller.
So every one of us is controller,
but Kṛṣṇa is the supreme
controller. He has no controller. I
am controller, I am Brahman, but
at the same time, I have got
superior controller over me. But
Kṛṣṇa is called Paraṁ Brahma, or
the īśvara parama, the supreme
controller, because He has no
controller over Him. That is the
acceptance of Arjuna. This is the
mode of studying Bhagavad-gītā.
If we don’t interpret in our own
way. If we really want to study
Bhagavad-gītā, then here is the
confirmation by Arjuna how he
understands Kṛṣṇa after hearing
Bhagavad-gītā. Not only that, he
also… In the Eleventh Chapter
you’ll find that Arjuna will request
Kṛṣṇa to show him His gigantic
universal form. Because he,
Arjuna, as he is, he accepted
Kṛṣṇa that He’s God undoubtedly.
But in future people may think
that Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna were two
friends. So out of friendly
appreciation, Arjuna might have
accepted Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, but what
is the evidence to us? Now, here,
when Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna requested
that “Kṛṣṇa, You kindly show me
the gigantic form, the gigantic
universal form,” He showed. That
is also described.

So the idea is that imitation God,
there may be so many.
Nowadays it has become a
fashion. Not in your country; at
least in India, it has become a
fashion, that everyone is coming
out and he declares himself, “I
am God. I am God.” As if the God
has become a very cheap thing,
and it can be had in the market,
wherever you go. You see? That
is not the thing. God is not so
cheap thing. God is not so cheap
thing. The description of God is,
in the Brahma-saṁhitā is given,

athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā
jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ viṣṇur mahān
sa iha yasya kalā-viśeṣo
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ
bhajāmi [Bs. 5.48]

The God… This material
creation… We have got this
information from authoritative
scripture. This material creation,
how it is being done? It is being
done that the Supreme Lord in
His form of Mahā-Viṣṇu, He’s
lying on the Causal Ocean and in
a sleeping mood, and with the
breathing of His nostrils, so many
universes are being born as seed.
And when He’s taking the
breathing, inhaling, the whole
thing is going into Him. So such
is the position of God, that by His
breathings, all the universes are
coming, and by His breathing…
So the existence of the universe
means within His breathing
period, within the breathing
period of the Mahā-Viṣṇu. So that
Mahā-Viṣṇu is described,
athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā
jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ viṣṇur mahān
sa iha yasya kalā-viśeṣaḥ [Bs.
5.48] That Mahā-Viṣṇu is also
plenary portion of Kṛṣṇa,
Govinda. That Mahā-Viṣṇu is also
not the original. The original
Personality of Godhead is Kṛṣṇa.

So this is a great science, what
Kṛṣṇa is—Kṛṣṇa science. It is
simply a synopsis; Bhagavad-gītā
is only a synopsis of the science
of God, and it is more explicitly
given in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavata.
But after all, it is a great science.
If we study it very seriously, then
we can understand… We should
not take so cheaply that “Here is
a God, here is a God, here is a
God.” No, no. God is not so
cheap. God is one, and He is
great. “God is great,” as in your
English language it is said, and
nobody can be greater than Him
or equal to Him. That is the
position of God. Now here,
Arjuna, he accepts Kṛṣṇa and he
says that “You are Paraṁ
Brahman.” Paraṁ brahma paraṁ
dhāma [Bg. 10.12]. Dhāma
means in which everything rests.
We are resting, everything is
resting. Just like… This is
scientific and practical, you know,
that the innumerable planets that
the, that you can see at night as,
I mean to say, luminaries, stars
in the sky, each and every one of
them, more or less, they are all
different kinds of planets. But do
you know how they are floating
in the space? They are floating
on the sunshine, on the sun rays.
They are floating. That you can
see. Similarly, the sunshine is the
imitation of the brahmajyoti that
is coming out of the body of the
Supreme Lord. So everything is
resting on the shine of the
Supreme Lord. Therefore He is
called paraṁ dhāma. Paraṁ
dhāma means “everything resting
on You.” Paraṁ brahma paraṁ
dhāma pavitram [Bg. 10.12].
Pavitram. Pavitram means
uncontaminated. Because we,
although we are Brahman, now
we are contaminated by this
material body. But the Lord has
no contaminated body of this
material existence. We have
already noted, īśvaraḥ paramaḥ
kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda… Sac-cid-
ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. Sac-
cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ means His
body is full—full of bliss, full of
knowledge, and it is eternal. That
is completely distinct from this
body. So when there is
description of the Lord that He is
formless, He is formless means
He is not of this form. He has got
a sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs.
5.1], a different element.
Therefore He’s called pavitra. And
paramaṁ bhavān: “You are the
Supreme Original.” Puruṣaṁ
śāśvataṁ divyam ādi-devam
ajaṁ vibhum. So “You are
Puruṣa.” Puruṣa means enjoyer.
“In the Vedic literature, about
Yourself…,” āhus tvām ṛṣayaḥ
sarve, “all the great sages accept
You, the Supreme Lord.” Āhus
tvām ṛṣayaḥ sarve devarṣir
nāradaḥ. Devarṣir nārada. I have
already spoken to you about
Nārada. He has also accepted
Him. That means authorities.
He’s quoting authorities. Not that
“I am personally accepting you as
such, but there are many
authorities, many authorities.” So
we have to understand about the
science of God from the
extraordinary activities and
confirmed by the authorities,
accepted by the revealed
scriptures. Then we have to
accept. You see? Not blindly. So
Arjuna is giving such evidences.
Asito devalo vyāsaḥ svayaṁ caiva
bravīṣi me: “You are accepted by
such authorities like that, and I
have the opportunity that I hear
all this from You directly. I am
fortunate enough that I am
become Your…, I am related in
friendship with You, and I am

So here is the evidence. Now, if
you want to study Bhagavad-gītā,
then you have to accept all these,
this statement of Arjuna. Because
Bhagavad-gītā was explained
directly to Arjuna, and if you
don’t accept the appreciation of
the direct person who heard
Bhagavad-gītā, then whom do we
believe? Suppose I have heard
something directly from one
person. So what I am saying,
another person who has no direct
relation, he’s also saying. Whom
do you believe? You have to
believe the person who has
directly heard. So here there is
no doubt about it, that Arjuna
directly heard Kṛṣṇa, and his
appreciations are recorded here.
So therefore, if we want to study
Bhagavad-gītā, then we have to
accept the appreciation of the
direct hearer, Arjuna. If we do
that, then we can get the right
thing. But if we change it for our
ulterior motive, as some, so
many annotators are doing in the
case of Bhagavad-gītā, then we
shall not be able to understand
what is Bhagavad-gītā.

All right, let us have some
question if you have.