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ANNOUNCER: The following is a
class on the Bhagavad-gītā As It
Is, 4th chapter, text 24 through
34, given by His Divine Grace A.
C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupāda, recorded in July of
1966 in New York.


brahmārpaṇaṁ brahma havir
brahmāgnau brahmaṇā hutam
brahmaiva tena gantavyaṁ

This verse we have been
discussing in our last meeting
about the sacrifice. And there are
different types of sacrifice
recommended according to the
different classes of men. There
are generally three classes of
human beings: those who are
under the influence of the modes
of goodness, and those who are
under the modes of passion, and
those who are under the modes
of ignorance. The whole Vedic
scriptures, they are also divided
into three divisions according to
these modes of material nature.
There are eighteen Purāṇas.
Purāṇas means supplementary to
the Vedas. The Vedas, they are
written in very difficult language,
but in order to explain them to
the ordinary person there are
Purāṇas, Mahābhārata,

(coughing) (aside:) It is disturbing
to me. (pause)

The Vedic principle is described…
According to these modes of
material nature, there are
eighteen Purāṇas. Out of that, six
Purāṇas are in the modes of
goodness, and six Purāṇas are in
the modes of passion, and six
Purāṇas are in the modes of
goodness [ignorance]. So there
are different varieties of sacrifices
according to the different class of
men. The whole idea of Vedic
literature is to give chance to
every human being to develop
spiritual consciousness under
certain rules and regulations. So
what is applicable to the persons
who are in the modes of
ignorance, they are not
applicable to the persons who
are in the modes of goodness, or
those who are in the modes of
passion, they are not applicable
to the modes of goodness. The
gradual process of evolution.

Now, just like there are
recommendations of animal
sacrifice. There are many
different types of sacrifice. There
is recommendation of animal
sacrifice also in the Vedic
literatures. And what is that? That
is a sort of restriction to the
animal-eaters. Indirectly it is
restriction, but it is sanctioned
also by sacrifice in the Vedas. Just
like the Vedic principle says that
if you want to eat flesh, don’t eat
flesh which is not offered in the
sacrifice, which is not offered in
the sacrifice.

Now, those who have been in
India, perhaps you have seen the
goddess Kālī. The goddess Kālī,
before the goddess Kālī a goat
sacrifice is offered. But the Vedic
principle says that if you want to
take flesh, then you must sacrifice
the goat before the goddess Kālī
and then you can take. And that
prescription is also very difficult
because on the dark moon night
the goat has to be sacrifice and
there are so many paraphernalia
and the mantra, the hymns
chanted there… The goat is, I
mean to, whispered within the
ear that “The man who is
sacrificing you, he will be
responsible for your life, and for
yourself, you are going to get the
next life as human being without
waiting for the evolutionary
process.” The animals… There is
an evolutionary process.

That is accepted in Darwin’s
theory also, anthropomorphism.
What is that? Anthropology, yes.
Not anthropomorphism.
Anthropology. Anthropology,
there is evolutionary process. So
that is accepted in the Vedic
literature also.

So the animal which is sacrificed,
he gets immediately his
evolutionary process developed
and promoted from animal life to
human life. But the man who is
offering that sacrifice, he
becomes responsible. These are
therefore so many hymns in the
Vedic literature. So whole idea is
that by offering such sacrifices
man is restricted from flesh-

Similarly, there are many kinds of
sacrifices they are described here.
I think those descriptions may
not be very elaborately
described, but I will give you the

daivam evāpare yajñaṁ yoginaḥ
paryupāsate brahmāgnāv apare
yajñaṁ yajñenaivopajuhvati

śrotrādīnīndriyāṇy anye
saṁyamāgniṣu juhvati śabdādīn
viṣayān anya indriyāgniṣu juhvati

Yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma. Yajña-
dāna-tapaḥ-karma na tyājyaṁ
kāryam eva tat. This is stated in
the Bhagavad-gītā that yajña,
sacrifice, charity, dāna. Yajña,
dāna and tapaḥ, tapaḥ. Tapaḥ
means penance.

Now, there are four divisions of
human society according to
Vedic literature: the brahmacārī,
the gṛhastha, the vānaprastha
and the sannyāsa. The
brahmacārī means the student
life, more or less, student life.
And gṛhastha means those who
are leading family life, after the
student life. And vānaprastha
means retired life. And the
sannyāsa means renounced
order. They have no connection
with worldly activities. So these
are four different stages of
human social order. Now, the
brahmacārī, they are meant for
sacrifice, the students. The
students are recommended to
sacrifice, especially to sacrifice
sense gratification.

The students are… Formerly, they
were in the guru-gṛha, spiritual
master’s place, and they had to
undergo severe types of
regulation. So a brahmacārī is
expected to go to every
householder and beg. There was
no system of schooling, there
was no system for payment. The
spiritual master, the teacher, he
did not accept any payment in
pound shilling pence. That was
not accepted because mostly
brāhmaṇas, they used to become
the teachers. So they were not
accepting any salary. The
brāhmaṇas are forbidden to
accept any service.

So the education was free. So
every student, education was
free. And village to village
education was… So in former
days—even fifty years before I
have seen in villages—there was
some small school, and all the
villages boys, they were coming
and taking education. So
education was very much
widespread because education
was free in this way. So students
were meant to go for begging
alms for the teachers. These are
some of the regulative principles.

Now, that is sacrifice. They
sacrificed their labor for the
spiritual master, for the teacher,
and whatever they got, they
surrendered to the teacher. And
it is said that after cooking, if the
teacher asked the student, “My
dear boy, you come and take
your meals,” then he will take.
Otherwise, if the teacher forgets
to call him one day for his meals,
then he should not go and ask
the teacher that “Sir, I have not
taken my food. Give me my
food.” Rather, he should starve.
So much penances, so much
regulative[?] was there. These are
called sacrifice.

So student life is meant for
sacrifice. They should undergo
training under serious
regulations and penances so that
life may be built up for future
hope and future spiritual
realization. But the sacrifice is
meant for the student life.

Similarly, the family life, those
who are… Yajña-dāna. Dāna
means charity. A gṛhastha, those
who are living in family life with
wife and children, they are
expected to give in charity as
much as possible. That is also

Suppose you are earning $1,000
in a month. So according to
Vedic instruction, you should give
in charity fifty percent of your
income. Five hundred dollars you
should give in charity. And
twenty-five percent you should
spend for your family and
twenty-five percent, as you are a
family man, you may have it as
bank balance so that in case of
emergency you may require it.
This is the prescription. Suppose
you are earning $1,000 a month.
You should give in charity for
God’s service fifty percent, and
twenty-five percent you should
spend for your family,
dependents, and twenty-five
percent you may have in a bank
balance so that… This is the

So yajña-dāna, this is also
sacrifice, sacrifice. So yajña-dāna
and tapaḥ. Tapaḥ means
penance. So the students are
meant for sacrifice, and the
gṛhasthas, the householders, are
meant for giving in charity, and
so far we are concerned, just like
sannyāsīs, we are meant for
tapasya, penance. We should
undergo all kinds of difficulties
for spreading the knowledge that
we have acquired. That is the
proper sannyāsī. A sannyāsī, a
renounced order of, I mean to
say, man who is in the renounced
order of life, his business is that
his acquired knowledge, his
experienced knowledge, should
be distributed to the public. So
according to the varṇāśrama-
dharma, the brahmacārīs and the
vānaprastha and the sannyāsīs…

Now, suppose if there are
hundred person in a society,
twenty-five percent students,
twenty-five percent retired life,
and twenty-five percent
sannyāsa, renounced order of
life. Now, out of 100 persons,
seventy-five percent, they are
engaged in the service of the
Supreme Lord. The rest twenty-
five percent who are gṛhasthas,
they are meant for sacrificing fifty
percent of their income for this
seventy-five percent. That is the
whole program of varṇāśrama-
dharma. That is a kind of spiritual
communism. Spiritual
communism. For spiritual
advancement of a society, the
whole social order is so arranged
that seventy-five percent of the
people, they are engaged in the
matter of spiritual advancement
of knowledge and twenty-five
percent of the population, those
who are earning, those who in
family life, those who have got
factories, business and so many
things, they should sacrifices fifty
percent of their income for these
seventy-five percent persons who
are engaged in spiritual
emancipation. So that is the
whole program. (aside:) Oh, I am
very glad to see you. (laughs)

That is the whole program of
varṇāśrama-dharma, varṇa and
āśrama. Varṇa means that… You
have perhaps heard, the caste
system in India. That is called
varṇa. The caste system which is
now going on, that is a vitiated
form of caste system. You have
heard in the Bhagavad-gītā that
cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ
guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg.
4.13]. This varṇa and āśrama is
also creation of the Supreme
Lord Kṛṣṇa. That is not man-
made. That is not man-made. So
how that varṇāśrama is created?

Now, guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ.
The guṇa… As I have already told
you, that we are being controlled
in three qualities or three modes
of nature, so anyone, he must be
either under the spell of these
three qualities. So according to
the quality and according to the
karma, the varṇas are there. I
have several times explained to
you. So the varṇa and the
āśrama. Āśrama means the
brahmacārī-āśrama, the
gṛhastha-āśrama, the
vānaprastha-āśrama and the

Āśrama, this very word, indicates
that it is spiritual. And perhaps
most of you know that āśrama
means… Āśrama, this very word,
means that this place… Just like
temple or church. There are so
many buildings on this Second
Avenue. And when you see a
church or a temple, you at once
understand that “This building is
meant for spiritual
understanding.” Similarly, when
we call āśrama, āśrama means
that that, I mean to say, function
is meant for spiritual realization.
So all the four classes of social
order—the brahmacārī, the
gṛhastha, and the vānaprastha
and the sannyāsa—they are
called āśrama. Āśrama means
they are meant for spiritual
emancipation. The student is also
given instruction so that before
entering family life, he gets
complete instruction of spiritual
life so that when he enters into
family life, he is not just like a cat
and dog, so-called sense
gratification. They are meant
for… Although they live with wife
and children, they are meant for
spiritual emancipation. This is
called āśrama, gṛhastha-āśrama.

So that was the idea. The whole
program was aiming at spiritual
emancipation. Na te viduḥ
svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇum [SB

na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi
viṣṇuṁ durāśayā ye bahir-artha-
māninaḥ andhā yathāndhair
upanīyamānās te ’pīśa-tantryām
uru-dāmni baddhāḥ [SB 7.5.31]

It is a verse from Śrīmad-
Bhāgavatam that Prahlāda
Mahārāja… That is a statement of
Prahlāda Mahārāja before his
father. His father was very much
materialistic, so he was
explaining to his father, “My dear
father,” na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ
hi viṣṇum, “general people…”
Because he was in the
materialistic family, his father was
a great materialistic, so he is
explaining… He was a great
devotee. The son was a great
devotee, and the father was a
great materialist, and there was a
quarrel between father and son.
So father questioned, “Where
you have got all this nonsense
knowledge or spiritual
knowledge?” So he was
explaining, na te viduḥ svārtha-
gatiṁ hi viṣṇuṁ durāśayā ye
bahir-artha-māninaḥ: [SB 7.5.31]
“My dear father, these people,
these materialistic people—that
means men of your nature—they
do not know what is their self-

Everyone is very busy for fulfilling
his self-interest, but actually he
does not know what is his self-
interest. Na te viduḥ. The self-
interest is Viṣṇu, to go back to
Godhead. That is self-interest.
Self-realization, self-interest, and
so many things—everything is
meant for going back to
Godhead. That is self-interest.

So Prahlāda Mahārāja said that
“Because people are very much
illusioned by this external
energy…” The material energy is
called external energy. “Because
people are deluded by this
external, by the glimmer of this
external energy, they have
forgotten that their self-interest
is Viṣṇu, or the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. And they
are conducting their life, general
process of life in a manner…”

How? Now, andhā yathāndhair
upanīyamānāḥ: “Just like one
blind man is leading several
other blind men.” That’s all. He is
the leader. A blind man has
become the leader of several
other blind man. So what benefit
is there? If the man is blind, how
can he… Because blind… Why
blind? Andhā yathāndhair
upanīyamānās te ’pīśa-tantryām
uru-dāmni baddhāḥ. Īśa-tantra,
īśa-tantra means by the laws of
God or by the laws of nature,
they are bound up tight, hands
and feet, and they are trying to
get free from the control of the

So this struggle for existence is
going on because they do not
know that their self-interest lies
in the understanding of his
relationship with the Supreme
Lord. And that is also confirmed
in the Bhagavad-gītā, bahūnāṁ
janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ
prapadyate: [Bg. 7.19] “After
many, many births, when a man
is actually in full knowledge, he
surrenders unto Me,” the Lord
says. That is the ultimate interest.
That is the ultimate knowledge,
that one should understand his
relationship with Viṣṇu and
surrender there. That is…
Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante: [Bg.
7.19] “After many, many births,”
jñānavān, “who has actually
acquired knowledge, he
surrenders unto Me,” the Lord

But sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ:
“But such a great soul is very
rare.” The surrendered soul, a
man in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, a
man surrendered to the control
of the Supreme Lord, is very rare.
These are instructions we get
from Vedic literature. And to
come to this point, this
surrendering process, vāsudevaḥ
sarvam iti sa mahātmā
sudurlabhaḥ [Bg. 7.19], to
understand that the Supreme
Lord is everything. Whatever is
manifested before us they are
different varieties of energies of
the Supreme Lord…

That is also stated in Viṣṇu

eka-deśa-sthitasyāgner jyotsnā
vistāriṇī yathā parasya
brahmaṇaḥ śaktis tathedam
akhilaṁ jagat

The Viṣṇu Purāṇa says that “Just
like fire is situated in one place
and distributes its heat and light
and illumination from that place,
similarly, whatever we are
experiencing in this manifested
world, they are different energies
of the Brahman, parasya
brahmaṇaḥ.” Parambrahman,
that means Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is
the Parambrahman.

So whole process is, sacrifice
means that we have to reach to
that point. The whole process of
sacrifice, either by yoga system
or by jñāna system or by
observing the rules and
regulation of the social system,
everything is meant for reaching
to that point. What is that?
Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante
jñānavān mām [Bg. 7.19] To
surrender unto the Supreme
Personality of Godhead.

So we, if we are intelligent
enough, then we should consider
that “If I have to do this job after
many, many births—I am getting
myself to very much
experience—and Lord Kṛṣṇa says
that this is the last point of
knowledge, why not accept it
immediately? Why not accept
immediately? If I have to come to
Kṛṣṇa at the last stage of mature
knowledge and I surrender unto
Him, then why should I wait for
many births? Why should I wait
for many births? Let me
surrender unto me [Him].”

Just yesterday night one of our
friends inquired that “How long it
takes time to have complete
Kṛṣṇa consciousness?” So I
replied that the Kṛṣṇa
consciousness can take place in a
second, and it may not take in
thousands of years. Because the
point is here, that after all, we
have to come to this point, that
surrender unto Kṛṣṇa, vāsudevaḥ
sarvam iti [Bg. 7.19]—Vāsudeva
means Kṛṣṇa—”Kṛṣṇa is
everything, and therefore I
surrender unto Him.” Sa
mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ. That
person, great soul, is very rare to
be found. Therefore why not
become that great soul
immediately by surrender unto
Kṛṣṇa? This is the point. By
sacrifice. Sacrifice means we have
to come to that point.

Now, if that is the point to be
achieved at the end, why not
become immediately jñānavān
and surrender unto Kṛṣṇa? That is
my suggestion.

sarvāṇīndriya-karmāṇi prāṇa-
karmāṇi cāpare ātma-saṁyama-
yogāgnau juhvati jñāna-dīpite

Ātma-saṁyama. There are
different kinds of penances. That
is called ātma-saṁyama. The
yogic principle is also another
sort of ātma-saṁyama.

dravya-yajñās tapo-yajñā yoga-
yajñās tathāpare svādhyāya-
jñāna-yajñāś ca yatayaḥ saṁśita-

There are dravyamaya-yajñas.
Dravyamaya-yajñas means giving
in charity. That is called
dravyamaya-yajña. Jñānamaya-
yajña means to engage oneself
into the studies of the Vedas very
critically, nicely. That is called

And those who are controlling
the senses, that is called
yogamaya-yajña. So there are
different kinds of yajñas, and
according to different kinds of
yajñas, there are different kinds
of yogis also. Each one of them is
called yogi. So according to the
type of yajña, there are different
kinds of yogis. Just like we are.
We are trying in the process of
transcendental loving service, so
we are bhakti-yogīs. We are
called yogi in the devotional
service. Of course, we’ll find in
the Sixth Chapter that bhakti-
yogī is the topmost yogi.

yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-
gatenāntar-ātmanā śraddhāvān
bhajate yo māṁ sa me
yuktatamo mataḥ [Bg. 6.47]

And that is stated by the Lord
that “There are different kinds of
yogis, but the person who is
always under the contemplation
of Me, he is the highest yogi.”

Therefore devotional service,
loving devotional service of the
Supreme Lord, that is the
topmost kind of yogi. That is we
find in everywhere, in every
chapter, in every verse of this
Bhagavad-gītā, that Kṛṣṇa
consciousness, which we are
trying to culture, that is the
highest type of yoga.

apāne juhvati prāṇaṁ prāṇe
’pānaṁ tathāpare prāṇāpāna-
gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-
parāyaṇāḥ apare niyatāhārāḥ
prāṇān prāṇeṣu juhvati

These prāṇa, apāna… There are
breathing control. There are
different kinds of air passing
within the body, and the yoga
system, the controlling, that is
also another kind of sacrifice.

sarve ’py ete yajña-vido yajña-
kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ yajña-
śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujo yānti brahma

Now, what is the purpose of this
sacrifice? Now, it is concluded
here that sarve ’py ete yajña-
vidaḥ. All these different kinds of
yajña, they are meant for
diminishing our sinful reaction,
our sinful reaction. Because we
are accumulating many sinful
reaction in different births. So if
we perform sacrifice, if we
perform yoga, that process helps
us in diminishing our
accumulated, I mean to say, sinful
reaction. But so far this harer
nāma harer nāma harer nāmaiva
kevalam [Adi 17.21], oh, this is
the easiest and the most, I mean
to say, supreme process. As we
have discussed many times, the
Lord Caitanya recommends that
ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanam [Cc.
Antya 20.12] By this, paraṁ
vijayate śrī-kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtanam, by
the performance of saṅkīrtana—

Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa
Kṛṣṇa Hare Hare Hare Rāma Hare
Rāma Rāma Rāma Hare Hare

—immediately the dust from the
mind is clear. That is

So in spite of it is very easy
process, it is the supreme
process. It surpasses all kinds of
other yajñas and yoga systems.

nāyaṁ loko ’sty ayajñasya kuto
’nyaḥ kuru-sattama

The Lord says that “Those who
are not performing yajña, they
cannot be happy even in this
world, in this life, and what to
speak of next life.” This is the
con… Therefore we have to
perform sacrifice. Nāyaṁ lokaḥ,
ayaṁ lokaḥ.

Ayam, in this world, in which we
are at present, that is also
becoming more miserable. At the
present moment people are
feeling so much painful in the
modern existence because this
process of yajña has been…
Completely, people are engaged,
“Work hard, earn money and be
engaged in sense gratification.”
That’s all. This is the whole
program, at the present moment
is going on. That cannot bring
any peace and prosperity to the
society. We have to perform
yajñas. That is the natural law.

The Lord says, nāyaṁ loko ’sty
ayajñasya: “Those who are not
performing, for them, there is no
happiness even in this world,
even in this life.” And kuto anyaḥ
kuru-sattama: “My dear Arjuna,
then what to speak of the next
life. Oh, next life is still more

evaṁ bahu-vidhā yajñā vitatā
brahmaṇo mukhe karma-jān
viddhi tān sarvān evaṁ jñātvā

śreyān dravyamayād yajñāj
jñāna-yajñaḥ parantapa sarvaṁ
karmākhilaṁ pārtha jñāne

Now, Kṛṣṇa is concluding these
different types of yajña. He says
that śreyān dravyamayād yajñāj
jñāna-yajñaḥ parantapa. Jñāna-
yajña, jñāna-yajña means… This is
jñāna-yajña, which we are doing
here. We are discussing
Bhagavad-gītā very scrutinizingly
and trying to understand every
verse with reference to the Vedic
reference and as far as our logic
and argument goes. So this is
called jñāna-yajña.

And dravyamaya-yajña means,
just like yesterday, day before
yesterdays, discussed that in the
altar of fire we have to sacrifice
clarified butter, grains, or
sometimes animal sacrifice. They
are called dravyamaya-yajña. So
Kṛṣṇa says, śreyān dravyamayād
yajñāt. That dravyamaya, that
sacrificing goods or other things
in the yajña, from that type of
yajña, śreyān dravyamayād yajñāj
jñāna-yajñaḥ parantapa. Jñāna-
yajña, this philosophical
discussion, logical discussion of
the aim of life from authorized
books like Bhagavad-gītā,
Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, if we have
discussion, this is called
jñānamaya-yajña, with
knowledge, jñānamaya-yajña.

So why jñānamaya-yajña is
preferred? Sarvaṁ karmākhilaṁ
pārtha jñāne parisamāpyate.
Because after all, we have to
acquire that knowledge which
will make me a surrendered soul
to the Supreme. That’s it.
Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante
jñānavān māṁ prapadyate [Bg.
7.19]. So jñāna also means that to
understand our position, to
understand what is God, to
understand what is our
relationship with God, to
understand why we are in this
material world and what is our
next life, wherefrom we have
come, where we have the right
knowledge, you can understand
all these things. And when you
understand everything, the path
is clear, you can clearly
understand that “I am the part
and parcel of the Supreme;
therefore my duty is to render
transcendental service to the
Supreme.” That is the highest
yajña, highest jñāna, knowledge,
knowledge, yajña. So Kṛṣṇa
advises that jñānamaya-yajña,
sacrifice… Sacrifice.

Now, to understand these things
you have to sacrifice some time,
you have to sacrifice some labor,
some attention. So these
sacrifices are counted more than
when we offer sacrificial goods in
the fire. That is clearly stated

Now what is the process of this
knowledge? That is also stated by
the Lord.

tad viddhi praṇipātena
paripraśnena sevayā
upadekṣyanti te jñānaṁ jñāninas
tattva-darśinaḥ [Bg. 4.34]

Now, if you have to acquire
knowledge, then first of all, you
have to find out a person who
has already seen the light. Tattva-
darśinaḥ. Tattva… Tattva means…
In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, tattva
is described, the English
translation is “Absolute Truth.”
That is called tattva. Now,

vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvaṁ
yaj jñānam advayam brahmeti
paramātmeti bhagavān iti
śabdyate [Bhāg. 1.2.11]

“Now, that Absolute Truth is
known in three different phases.”
What is that? “Brahman,
Paramātmā and Bhagavān.” So a
person, we have to… If we really
seeking knowledge, then we have
to find out a person who is
tattva-darśī, who has understood
the Absolute Truth. Now, the
Absolute Truth is realized in three
phases: Brahman, Paramātmā
and Bhagavān.

There are certain tattva-vit, or the
knower of the Absolute Truth,
who understands that Absolute
Truth as impersonal Brahman.
And there are others, knower of
the Absolute Truth, who
understands the Absolute Truth
as the localized Supersoul. These
are called yogis. And the first-
mentioned persons, they are
called jñānīs. And there are other
tattva-vit, or knower of the
Absolute Truth, who knows the
Absolute Truth as Kṛṣṇa, the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
So either Brahman or Paramātmā
or Kṛṣṇa the Supreme Personality
of, there is no difference. The
same thing, but according to the
capacity of the knower, they are
manifested into different phases.

We have several times discussed
this point. Just like to understand
the sun, somebody is studying
the sun rays. He is also studying
the sun and somebody is
studying what is the sun disc. So
he is also studying sun and
somebody is trying to enter into
the sun planet to see who is
there. Everything is the sun. But
the persons who are studying the
sunshine, their grade is lower
than the person who is trying to
understand the sun disc. And
their position is lower grade than
the person who wants to enter
into the sun. So the bhaktas, they
are trying to see the sun-god
within the sun. Just like they want
to see Kṛṣṇa. In the Upaniṣad
we’ll find… There is a prayer that
the Brahman is said, “Will You
kindly push off Your glaring,
dazzling glare so that I can really
see You.” So within the
Brahmajyoti there is Kṛṣṇa. So we
have to see that.

So anyway, either the
Brahmavādī or Paramātmavādī or
the bhakta, they are all tattva-vit.
They are all transcendentalists.
There is no difference. But as
there are three classes in every
sphere, so there are three classes
in the transcendental field also.
So here Bhagavad-gītā, the Lord
recommends that jñāninas
tattva-darśinaḥ. You have to find
out a person who is tattva-darśī,
who has realized the Absolute
Truth, either in Brahman
conception or in Paramātmā
conception or in Personality of
Godhead conception because we
have got different tastes. So the
Paramātmā or the Supreme
Absolute Truth is also manifested
in three phases: Brahman,
Paramātmā, Bhagavān. So
anyway, either you select the
impersonal Brahman conception
of the Absolute Truth, either you
select the localized supreme soul,
Supersoul conception of the
Absolute Truth, or you accept the
highest, the Supreme Personality
of Godhead Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Mattaḥ
parataraṁ nānyat kiñcid asti
dhanañjaya [Bg. 7.7] The Lord
says that “This is the last phase of
Absolute Truth, what I am, Kṛṣṇa.”

So anyway, we have to, if we
want jñāna—because the
jñānamaya-yajña is
recommended the highest
yajña—so if we actually want
jñāna, then we have to first of all
find out a person who is tattva-
darśī. Just like if you have to
purchase gold, you must know
where gold is available. If you go
for purchasing gold to a grocer
shop then it is hopeless. You see?
It is not possible. Then you will
be cheated. So at least you have
to find out the person who has…
That can be found. Just like by
culture. That is called sacrifice,

If you are actually in search of
knowledge, Kṛṣṇa will help you,
because He is helping you in
every way. Īśvara. Sarvasya cāhaṁ
hṛdi sanniviṣṭaḥ. This we have
discussed this morning. He is
always with you; so He
understands what kind of
knowledge you are in search
after. So we must be sincere, that
we want to know that Absolute
Truth. Then you will find out;
Kṛṣṇa will help you. If you want a
Brahmavādī, He will help you. If
you want a Paramātmavādī, then
He will help you. And if you want
a devotee, that also help. So tad
viddhi. You have to first of all
search out a person. So Kṛṣṇa
recommends that if you want
knowledge then first of all… That
is the process, the whole Vedic

In the Kaṭhopaniṣad also it is said
that tad-vijñānārthaṁ gurum eva
abhigacchet: “If you want to
understand the transcendental
science, then you have to
approach to a spiritual master.”
And who is spiritual master? Oh,
nowadays everyone wants to be
spiritual master. Oh, that is also
mentioned, who is spiritual
master. Samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṁ
brahma-niṣṭham: [MU 1.2.12]
“You have to approach a spiritual
master who is śrotriyam and
brahma-niṣṭham.” Śrotriyam
means who has come down from
the disciplic succession, or from
the Supreme. Just like we have
understood in the Fourth
Chapter, in the beginning of the
Fourth Chapter, evaṁ
paramparā-prāptam imaṁ
rājarṣayo viduḥ [Bg. 4.2]. There is
a paramparā; there is disciplic
succession. So one who is coming
into that disciplic succession and
by coming from that disciplic
succession, he is firmly convinced
in the Absolute, he is firmly
conversant in the Absolute Truth,
he is guru. Two qualifications. He
must come from that disciplic
succession and he must be
convinced. Nobody can be ? in
the brahman condition of the
Absolute Truth. Any time. These
two qualifications. Tad viddhi
praṇipātena paripraśnena [Bg.

In Kaṭha Upaniṣad it is said tad-
vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum
evābhigacchet [MU 1.2.12].
Abhigacchet. This is a Sanskrit
grammatical injunction. Where
there is the question if
imperative, “you must,” there
vidhilin, this form of verb, is used,
gacchet, gacchet. Gacchet means
“You must go.” You don’t think
that without going to a qualified,
bona fide spiritual master you
can have. No. That is not
possible. Here also, Lord Kṛṣṇa
also recommends, tad viddhi
praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā:
[Bg. 4.34] “If you want to learn
that transcendental science, then
you have to find out a
transcendentalist first of all.” That
is also recommended in

In Bhāgavata also, it is said,
tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta
jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam: [SB
11.3.21] “One who is hankering
after the highest type of
question…” We have got so many
questions. We can question the
whole day and night “What is the
rate of this commodity? What is
happening in the political field?
What is going on in China?”
These questions are not… Not
these question. Śreya uttamam.
One who has become inquisitive
in the uttamam. Uttamam means
udgata-tama, not any question of
pertaining to the material world.
One who is eager to question
about the Absolute Truth or the
spiritual world, he requires a
spiritual master. Tasmād guruṁ
prapadyeta. The first injunction is
that tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta:
“You must submit to a spiritual

Who? Who is recommended to
find out a spiritual master?
Tasmād gurum…jijñāsuḥ. Jijñāsuḥ
means who is inquisitive. What
kind of inquisitive? Jijñāsuḥ śreya
uttamam: “What is the ultimate
goal of my life?” If you have no
such view to inquire what is the
ultimate goal of your, you need
not require to search out a
spiritual master. Spiritual master
is not a show bottle. Just like,
“Oh, so many people, they have
got a spiritual master. Let me
have also some spiritual master.”
It is not like that. It is only
jijñāsuḥ, one must be very much
inquisitive of the transcendental
subject matter. He requires a
spiritual master. So here also, the
Lord says that tad viddhi: “If you
want to understand that
transcendental subject matter,
then you must approach a
person, a bona fide spiritual

And the process is praṇipāta,
praṇipātena. Praṇipāta means full
surrender. Pra means prakṛṣṭa-
rūpeṇa, fully, and nipāta means
completely becoming a blank
slate. Blank slate. Nobody should
approach a bona fide spiritual
master just to argue with him
and just to, with a desire that “I
shall see what kind of spiritual
master.” No. This is useless. You
have to select a spiritual master…

My Guru Mahārāja, my spiritual
master, used to say that you have
to select a spiritual master not by
seeing but by your ear, but by
hearing. And you don’t select a
spiritual master who has got a
very good hair or beard or some
very beautiful feature, “Oh, he is
a very good, nice looking.” No.
You must hear. Tad viddhi
praṇipātena [Bg. 4.34]. Śruti. The
whole process is śruti. The Vedas
are called śruti. The ear has to
aural reception.

So here also the same thing
recommended by Lord Kṛṣṇa,
that praṇipāta. First of all, you
have to find out a bona fide
spiritual master, and then you
should surrender unto him. This
is the first process. Praṇipātena
paripraśnena. Paripraśnena
means by sincere inquiries. Not
only surrender, you must be
intelligent enough to inquire. Not
that when something is heard,
and there is no question. No.
There must be some question.
Paripraśnena and sevayā. So
surrender, inquiry, and sevā,

We sing this song every day,

yasya prasādād bhagavat-
prasādo yasyāprasādān na gatiḥ
kuto ’pi dhyāyan stuvaṁs tasya
yaśas tri-sandhyaṁ vande guroḥ
śrī-caraṇāravindam **

Yasya, if we actually find a
spiritual master, bona fide
spiritual master, and if we can
make him satisfied by my service,
then my path for realization of
God is guaranteed. This is the
thing. Here it is. First of all we
have to find out a bona fide
spiritual master. Then by my
service, by my surrender, by my
questions, if we utilize, then my
path for back to Godhead, back
to home, is guaranteed. That is
the… It is very important verse.
Tad viddhi praṇipātena
paripraśnena sevayā,
upadekṣyanti te jñānam [Bg.
4.34]. That knowledge by which
you can go to the point of your
self-interest, Viṣṇu, that
knowledge you can realize.

Thank you very much.