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ANNOUNCER: The following is a
class on the Bhagavad-gītā As It
Is, 13th chapter, text number 4,
given by His Divine Grace A. C.
Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupāda, recorded on the
12th of August, 1973 in Paris,

DEVOTEE: “Now please hear My
brief description of this field of
activity and how it is constituted,
what its changes are, whence it is
produced, who that knower of
the field of activities is, and what
his influences are.”

PRABHUPĀDA: Tat kṣetram. Idaṁ
śarīraṁ kaunteya kṣetram ity
abhidhīyate [Bg. 13.2]. So Kṛṣṇa
has already explained, kṣetra
means idaṁ śarīram. Śarīram
means this body. Tat kṣetram.
First of all, you have to
understand that this body or any
field of action, anywhere, the
three things are there: the field of
activities, the owner of the field
and the supervisor of the field.
You can check and tally
anywhere. So Kṛṣṇa says
kṣetrajñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi.
There are two kṣetrajñaḥ and one
kṣetra. One field of activity and
two personalities, kṣetrajñaḥ. One
is to be supposed as occupier
and the other is supposed to be
the owner.

Just like in this house we are
occupier. The house is kṣetra,
field of activities. The landlord is
the owner and we are the
occupier. Two kṣetrajñaḥ. This
property is interest for two
persons. One is the occupier and
the other is the owner. Similarly,
anywhere, any part of the world,
anywhere you go, you will find
these three things: One, the field
of activities and the other two
means one occupier and one
owner. If one understands these
three things and he can study
everywhere these three things,
then: kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor yad
jñānam. This knowledge, to
understand everywhere that
there is a field of activity and two
persons are interested in that
field of activity… One is the
owner, another is the occupier. If
you study these three things
only, then: taj-jñānaṁ jñānam.
That is knowledge. Otherwise all
rascals and fools, that’s all.
Mataṁ mama. (aside:) Don’t sit
like that.

This is jñānam. But ask anybody
at the present moment who is
the owner, who is the occupier
and what is the field of activities.
If you ask three things, nobody
will be able to answer. That
means everyone is rascal at the
present. Or they do not know.
Kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor yaj-jñānam,
Kṛṣṇa says, “This relationship
between the field of action, and
the owner.”

Just like in agriculture. The land is
owned by the state or the king.
And it is rented or occupied by
somebody else. And the land is
the field of action. So Kṛṣṇa is
giving direction. Kṛṣṇa is giving
direction, and the living entity is
there. He is acting according to
that direction.

So both Kṛṣṇa and the living
entity are sitting in one tree. That
is stated in the Upaniṣad. Two
birds are sitting in one tree. One
is eating the fruit of the tree and
other is simply witnessing. The
witnessing bird is Kṛṣṇa. And the
bird who is eating the fruits of
the tree, he is the living entity.
The Māyāvādī philosophers, they
cannot distinguish between the
jīva soul, jīvātmā, and
Paramātmā. They know it, but
because they are monists, to
establish their theory, they say
there is no two, there is one. No.
Kṛṣṇa says two. One kṣetrajñaḥ,
the jīvātmā, and the other
kṣetrajñaḥ He is, Kṛṣṇa. The
difference between the two is
that the individual living entity
knows only about his kṣetra,
body, but the other living entity,
the supreme living entity, He
knows all the bodies, everywhere.

So material nature is actually the
field of activities in our
conditioned life. We have—
manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-
sthāni karṣati [Bg. 15.7]. In the
fifteenth chapter you’ll find it,
that, who are these living entities,
we? Kṛṣṇa says, mamaivāṁśo:
“They are all my parts and
parcels.” Mamaivāṁśo. Just like
father and the son. A father has
got many sons. Similarly, we are
all sons of God. Mamaivāṁśo
jīva-bhūtaḥ [Bg. 15.7], sanātanaḥ.
Sanātanaḥ means eternally. It is
not that we are now part and
parcel and after liberation we’ll
become one, or equal, the
Māyāvādī theory. No. That is not.
Therefore this very word is used,
sanātana, eternally. Eternally, we
are part and parcel.

Then why they are not with You?
Why they are here in this
material world? Now manaḥ
ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni
karṣati [Bg. 15.7]. They have
preferred to enjoy this material
world, to lord it over the material
world. Therefore, mind and
senses, manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi ,
with these senses and mind,
karṣati. manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi
prakṛti-sthāni. Karṣati [Bg. 15.7],
karṣati means struggling.
Struggle for existence. This is our
position. We are part and parcel
of Kṛṣṇa. Now we have given up
by misuse of our independence.
We wanted to imitate Kṛṣṇa.
Kṛṣṇa is the supreme enjoyer, so
when we become envious of
Kṛṣṇa, tān ahaṁ dviṣataḥ krurān,
the demons are envious. They
want to become Kṛṣṇa. Therefore,
you will find so many demons.
They will say, “Why Kṛṣṇa is alone
God? I am God, you are God, all
of us, we are God.” So they are
demons. So demons cannot be
allowed in the spiritual world.
They are sent in this material

Just like in some places I’ve heard
in Europe there are many places,
where the gamblers and the
drunkards, without any license,
they can go on with their
business. Is there any place like
that? Huh?


PRABHUPĀDA: What is the


PRABHUPĀDA: Yes. So we are
given this place, Monte Carlo
(laughter). Go on with your sinful
activities without any license, go
on. Demons. They’ll not hear.
They’ll not accept Kṛṣṇa as the
advisor, instructor.

na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ
prapadyante narādhamāḥ
māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ āsuriṁ
bhāvam āśritāḥ [Bg. 7.15]

The āsuriṁ bhāvam āśritaḥ
means demons. There are two
classes of men, demon and god.
Not the Godhead, God. Those
who are Vaiṣṇavas means
obedient to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, they are
also god or godly. And those
who are not obedient, they are
demons. This is the difference
between demon and God or
godly. So there are two classes of
men always in this material
world. In the spiritual world, they
are all gods, godly. Kṛṣṇa is the
Godhead and all living entities
there, they are godly.

So in the spiritual world there is
no facility for the demons.
Therefore when Kṛṣṇa likes to
fight, because after many many
years not fighting, because in the
spiritual world there is no fight.
All obedient servant, where is the
possibility of fighting? Therefore
sometimes He comes here to
fight with the demons. (laughter)
Just to get the body fit. (laughter)
Yes. Therefore sometimes when
there are scarcity of demons,
some of the devotees, they come
and become a demon. Not
become demon, just Kṛṣṇa wants
to fight, so without demon, how
Kṛṣṇa will fight? Therefore they
play the part of demon so that
Kṛṣṇa—that means they want to
serve Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa wants to, just
like sometimes big men they
keep some wrestlers to make
mock fight. Similarly, to serve
Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa has desire to fight so
they come down and become
just like a demon and fight with

Just like Hiraṇyakaśipu. They are
Jaya and Vijaya, attendant in
Vaikuṇṭha. But Kṛṣṇa wanted to
fight, so therefore they came
down and became demons like
Hiraṇyakaśipu, Rāvaṇa and
fought with Him. This is, Kṛṣṇa
has all the desires. Otherwise, this
fighting desire, where from we
get unless it is there in Kṛṣṇa?
There is.

Janmādy asya yataḥ [Bhāg. 1.1.1]
Everything that we find here, that
is in Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa has
got twelve different kinds of
relationship. Akhila-rasāmṛta.
Kṛṣṇa is the reservoir of all kind
of rasa. Sometimes fighting is
also pleasing. Therefore the
fighting spirit is there in Kṛṣṇa.
And we have got also that
fighting spirit also, in small
quantity. We can fight also, but
Kṛṣṇa can also fight. But when
Kṛṣṇa fight, the opposite party
means finished. (laughter) When
we fight, that is different. I may
be finished or he may be
finished. That is different. So this
is the position.

Therefore Kṛṣṇa in the next says
tat-kṣetram yac ca yadṛk. How
this kṣetra, different types of
body, they cannot explain. The
so-called scientists, they cannot
explain why there are different
types of bodies. There are eight
million four hundred thousand
different types of bodies. And the
human race, they are four
hundred thousand. These four
hundred thousand are
distributed all over the universe.
On this planet, may be some
thousands, not four hundred
thousand, not all of them are
here. Yet here also in the human
forms we find so many
differences. The Europeans, the
Americans, the Africans, the
Indians, the Chinese, different
forms. That also can be counted,
maybe hundred, two hundred
different types of forms of
human beings. But there are four
hundred thousands. Four
hundred thousand. That is the
human race.

And eight millions other forms.
Eight millions. The aquatics, the
trees, these plants, the grass and
the insects. We have experience
how many different types of
insects are there in Māyāpur.
During night, so many different
types of insects come to the fire,
to the light. This is another
illusion. These insects, they are
coming, being attracted by the
beauty of the light. The electric
light, it is not open. Otherwise,
these insects come in the
burning fire and die. Beauty.
Captivated by the beauty of the
fire. So actually it is going on. We
are attracted by the beauty of
māyā and exactly we are falling
to the fire and dying.

So there are so many
instructions. Even if you study
simply these eight million four
hundred thousand different kinds
of… So how to study them? Kṛṣṇa
is explaining. Tat kṣetram. Tat
kṣetram means that kind of, that
body, there are so many. Tat
kṣetram yac ca yadṛk. How they
have attained different types of
body? The soul is there. Soul, we
have already explained, is the
kṣetrajñam. But except the
followers of Vedic knowledge,
nobody knows. Just like the
Christian people they say there is
no soul of the animals. And how
is not? Kṣetrajñam. Soul is there,
everywhere, but they have got
their different types of bodies.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, tat kṣetram.
Tat kṣetraṁ yac ca yadṛk ca. How
they have got different? Kṛṣṇa
has already explained in the
fifteenth chapter, they are all
Kṛṣṇa’s part and parcels.

In another place Kṛṣṇa said,

sarva-yoniṣu kaunteya
sambhavanti mūrtayaḥ tāsāṁ
mahad yonir brahma ahaṁ bīja-
pradaḥ pitā [Bg. 14.4]

He’s the seed-giving father.
Therefore, all living entities are
Kṛṣṇa’s part and parcel. It is
foolishness to say that other
living entities, other than the
human being, they have no soul.
It is foolishness. They have got
soul. Every… Even the ant has got
soul, even the microbe has got
soul, even the germ has got soul,
everyone has got soul. But they
have got different types of body
only, outward. Therefore Kṛṣṇa
says, yac ca yadrk ca. How they
have got different types of
bodies? So these, subject matters
are very subtle things.

But there is no facility for
studying this subject matter in
the university or any educational
institution. Therefore they are
called mūḍhas. They do not
understand what is God. Who
was telling me? Some Bengali
professor came here, and he said,
“I am agnostic.” So mostly the so-
called educated circle, they are
agnostics. They do not believe in
God, they do not believe in the
soul, and still they are passing on
as educationists, learned
scholars, professor. This is the
pity. Therefore one should learn
from Kṛṣṇa, this education
system at the present moment,
you cannot learn anything
positively. They are all vague.

Here Kṛṣṇa says, try to
understand, each and every
body, tat kṣetram. Why one soul
has got a godly body and one
soul has got dog body, one soul
has got very beautiful body,
another soul has got very ugly
body? So one has got nails and
jaws, one has very nice beautiful
hand, fingers. There are varieties.
Kṛṣṇa says that sa ca yo yat
prabhavaś ca. Prabhavaś ca. And
each body has got a different
type of influence. Each type of
body. This is God’s creation.

There are innumerable planets.
Each planet has got a different
atmosphere. Just like we have
got experience within this planet,
Europe has got another
atmosphere, India has got
another atmosphere. Similarly, all
the planets, they are of different
atmospheres and each and every
planet there are varieties of living
entities. Just imagine the living
entities are eight million four
hundred thousand species. So
even if you divide so many
thousands and hundreds, still,
eight million. This is God’s
creation. God’s creation means
all these living entities, they want
to enjoy this material world in a
different capacity and God has
given the facility, “Yes, you can
enjoy. You can enjoy.” He is
giving facility. Sarvasya cāhaṁ
hṛdi sanniviṣṭo [Bg. 15.15] He’s
sitting, God is so kind, Kṛṣṇa is so

Just like you have seen the
master taking his dog. The dog is
allowed to do whatever he likes,
the master waits. The real
business of the dog is to obey
the master’s order. But the
master gives the dog facility,
“Yes, you can walk, you can run,
you can pass urine, stool, I’ll
wait.” As the master gives facility.
Similarly, Kṛṣṇa is so kind, Kṛṣṇa
is so affectionate, that we have
come to enjoy this material
world, He is giving us the
facilities. Just like the master is
giving the facility to the dog.
Kṛṣṇa is so kind. But Kṛṣṇa wants
that every living entity should be
obedient to Kṛṣṇa. Then that is
Kṛṣṇa’s enjoyment.

He’s so kind that He’s asking
every living entity, especially the
human being, patraṁ puṣpaṁ
phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā
prayacchati. He’s self-sufficient.
He’s not hungry. He is supplying
necessities, food, to every living
entity. Still He’s hankering for a
little flower, little fruit, from this
living entity. “Please give Me.” So
this is the position. Patraṁ
puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me
bhaktyā prayacchati tad aham
aśnāmi: “If you kindly give me
even little flower, a little fruit,
little water, with faith and love, I
will eat.” Kṛṣṇa is so kind. And
He’s simply trying to turn the
face of the living entity towards
Him. Therefore He is always with
us. So this is another—Kṛṣṇa has
come here in this temple to
accept your offerings. So that
you may again go back to home,
back to Godhead.

That is Kṛṣṇa’s desire. He’s so
kind. In whatever way possible,
He’s trying to get us back to
home, back to Godhead. That is
Kṛṣṇa’s mission. He’s coming
Himself as Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme
Personality. He’s coming Himself
as the devotee, Lord Caitanya. He
came, Kṛṣṇa, personally, and
asked everyone, sarva-dharmān
parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ
vraja: [Bg. 18.66] “Why you are
suffering here? You give up all
these engagements.” Because
here whatever you do will simply
create entanglement and suffer,
that’s all. You cannot be free to
do anything. That is not possible.
So Kṛṣṇa therefore says that,
“Don’t bother by manufacturing
your ways of thinking.”

Just like yesterday one boy and
girl came, he’s poet. I asked him,
“What poetry you write? What is
the subject matter?” No subject
matter. No subject matter.
(laughter) This is pāgal, Pāgal
means “mad.” Piśācī pāile yena
mati-cchana haya māyār grasta
jīvera sei dāsa upajaya. Piśācī,
ghost. Ghostly haunted. A
person, when he becomes
ghostly haunted, he speaks all
kinds of nonsense. So māyā
grasta jīvera sei dāsa upajaya.
Those who have come to this
material world under the
influence of the external energy
of Kṛṣṇa, māyā, they are all

It is not śāstra, it is the opinion of
medical science also. The medical
science. In India there was a case,
a murderer. So his pleader,
lawyer pleaded that “This man,
when committed this murder, he
was insane.” So the judge called
for the civil surgeon to examine
him whether he has got such
tendency, insanity. So he gave
evidence, “My lord, so far my
knowledge concerned, I have
tested so many men, everyone is
insane. It is a question of degree.
Now if you consider that he was
insane, you, that is your business
to punish him, or not punish him.
But so far my knowledge is
concerned, I have studied so
many men and I have found they
are all insane.” Actually that is the

What does it mean, insanity?
When his brain is not acting
nicely. That is insanity. So anyone
who is in this material world, they
are against God consciousness.
That is the sign of insanity. He’s
under the strict regulation of
God, still he defies, “There is no
God. There is no God, I am God.”
This is insanity. Piśācī pāile yena
mati-cchana haya. So how these
different types of insanity is
visible, that will be explained,
Kṛṣṇa. Tat kṣetraṁ yac ca yadṛk
ca. Not one kind of body or one
kind of insanity, different types of
insanities. Yac ca yadṛk ca yad
vikārī. This vikārī means
transformation. Everyone’s brain
is vikārī, not in order. Yat vikārī
yataś ca yat. How such kind of
transformation, vikārī, this
derangement has taken place. Sa
ca yo yat prabhavaś ca. And
prabhavas, everyone, every living
entity has got a particular type of

Just like a small bird, immediately
he can fly in the sky. And
although we are very intelligent,
if I want and if you want to fly in
the sky, no you cannot. Although
he’s supposed to be very
intelligent, scientist, but I cannot
fly. But a small bird will
immediately fly. That is his
prabhavaḥ. You must have to
admit that this is his special
power. Similarly, a vulture, he
goes four miles up and his eyes
are very small. But from the four
miles away he will find out where
there is a dead body,
immediately jump over. And we
have got so many big eyes. But
we cannot say, after… This
spectacle required. You cannot
see even one feet. So this is his
prabhavaḥ, influence. A vulture,
most, but a nasty bird, still it has
got so much influence that you
cannot compete with him. So
you’ll find in every creature, every
living entity, a special prerogative
than the others, than the others.
So, with the body.

Just like the hog. The hog can eat
stool very nicely, very nicely. But
although we say that everything
is food, we can eat… Then you
eat the stool? You cannot eat. He
has got the influence that he can
eat the stool very nicely.
Therefore we should not consider
that all living entities are of the
same status. They have different
status. You cannot say because
the other living entity is eating
something abominable, therefore
I can also eat, it is eatable. No,
you cannot do that. If you eat,
you will be diseased. Therefore, it
is called, “one man’s food is
another man’s poison.”
Prabhavaś ca. One can eat
anything. Not anything. Nobody
can eat anything. His allotted

In the living entities lower than
the human being, they follow the
nature’s way, their allotted food.
Just like the tiger eats blood and
flesh. If you offer him nice fruit,
nice sweet rice, he’ll not eat. Even
the dog, they do not like the
sweet rice or nice kachorī and
sṛṅgara. You’ll see. They cannot
eat. If they eat, they will fall
diseased. In Bengal it is said,
kukkure peṭe ghī sayanaya.[?]
Too much fatty things, if you give
to the dog, he’ll not be able to
digest. So similarly, we are also
human beings, we have got
special food. Special food.

Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, Kṛṣṇa’s
prasāda will be taken by whom?
By the human being. No, it can
be offered to any living entities,
but worship of Kṛṣṇa is meant for
the human being. Therefore, a
devotee will take the remnants of
foodstuff offered to Kṛṣṇa.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says patraṁ
puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me
bhaktyā prayacchati.

Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Lord, He
can eat anything. He can eat
anything because He is all-
powerful, omnipotent. But we
cannot do that. Therefore Kṛṣṇa
says, “You give Me this
vegetable, fruit, grains, milk, and
I will take.” Therefore indirectly it
is said, these are the foodstuff of
the human being. Not any others
things. You cannot say that “This
is also eatable, therefore I shall
eat.” Then you become a hog.
Those who have no
discrimination, of eating, they are
going to be hog next life.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, yad vikārī
yataś ca yat. How one becomes a
hog, dog, cat or demigod or
Indra, or Brahma, that will be
explained. You are given the
facility of human being and if you
misuse your facilities, then
according to your mental
condition, you’ll be offered the
next body. Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran
loke tyajyaty ante kalevaram,
you’ll find.

Therefore, give up doggish
mentality. That is Kṛṣṇa
consciousness. Train up your
mind, God, godly mentality. Then
you’ll be transferred next life,
back to home, back to Godhead.
That is required. This Kṛṣṇa
consciousness movement is
training the people for being
promoted to the highest
standard of life. This Kṛṣṇa
consciousness movement is so
important. We are giving chance
to the people not to become
next life cats and dogs and
vultures. But associate of Kṛṣṇa.
To become a cowherd boy, to
play with Kṛṣṇa, or gopī, to dance
with Kṛṣṇa. This much facilities
we are going to giving.

So everyone should consider how
much welfare movement is this
Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement
and they should follow the
instruction of Kṛṣṇa and the
ācāryas and make their life
successful. Thank you very much.